Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS] is an international journal published quarterly. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality original research work, reviews, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education Forum and Letter to editor that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of health sciences. Articles with timely interest and newer research concepts will be given more preference.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJPMR Publishing Press en-US Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences 2350-0964 <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences applies the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)</a>&nbsp;license to published articles. Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but they allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited. Appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.</p> Engaging a Disadvantaged Community in Identifying Determinants of Child Neglect using Health Promotion Approach: An Experience from a Sri Lankan Study http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1029 <p>Child neglect is a form of child maltreatment that causes adverse short and long term consequences. Neglect is a public health problem in Sri Lanka and throughout the world. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify the determinants of neglect with a disadvantaged community in Sri Lanka using health promotion approach. Mothers having at least one child in the age range 5–18 years, and the elder child of each mother within the age range 5–18 years were included in the sample. The sample size was 42 mothers and 42 children. The period of determinant identification took an average of three months. Participatory methods in accordance with the health promotion approach were used. Discussions between principal investigator and the participants were recorded, transcribed, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. Without the involvement of the principal investigator, children identified four determinants as poor economy, domestic violence, alcohol abuse of parents and un-education of mothers and mothers identified five determinants. Poor resources and poor economy were the first two determinants identified by mothers. After the facilitation by the principal investigator, children identified another seven determinants, and mothers identified another thirteen determinants. Mothers and children separated determinants in to levels as individual, family, and community level. Of the total identified determinants, mothers and children collectively prioritized poor practices of mothers, poor mother-child relationships, and poor social support to be addressed. Disadvantaged community mothers and children could identify and prioritize determinants of neglect successfully with minor guidance through a health promotion approach.</p> N. Rathnayake S. De Silva Weliange G.N.D. Guruge Copyright (c) 2020 N. Rathnayake http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 1 6 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.1 Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 Apoptotic Regulatory Proteins in Melphalan-induced Spermatogenic Dysfunction http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1032 <p>The adverse effect of Melphalan (MEP), an anti-cancer compound in the male reproductive system, was investigated. In this study, 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg/bwt intraperitoneal doses of MEP were administered daily for 28 days. Half of the mice were sacrificed after 24 hours of the last treatment, and the other half were sacrificed 28 days after withdrawal of treatment. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of testicular tissue were evaluated. The induction of apoptosis was assessed by investigating the level of CASP-3 and CASP-9 activities in spermatogenic cells. CASP- 9, Bax and BCL-2 expression were checked by real-time PCR and western blotting. Testis weight in MEP-treated mice was significantly decreased. There was a significant decrease in sperm parameters, GSH GPx, CAT, and SOD levels, with a concomitant increase in ROS and MDA levels confirming the generation of oxidative stress. MEP-treatment leads to the increased expression of CASP-9, BAX, with decreased BCL-2 protein levels in a dosedependent manner. No significant recovery after 28 days of withdrawal of the treatment was observed. The results indicate that MEP- treatment leads to testicular damage due to the formation of oxidative stress and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis.</p> Olajumoke Omolara Ojo Copyright (c) 2020 Olajumoke Omolara Ojo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 7 11 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.2 The use of Rose Angina Questionnaire and 12 lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Identification of potential Ischemic Heart Changes among a group of Hypertensive Patients in Sri Lanka http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1034 <p>Introduction: Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs)are a leading cause of mortalities in Sri Lanka. Among a variety of risk factors, hypertension is a leading cause for IHDs; however, unequal distribution of proper diagnostic facilities complicates the early diagnosis of ischemic changes among adults in Sri Lanka. Therefore this study aimed at studying the possibility of using two basic diagnostic tools, including Rose angina questionnaire (RAQ) and 12 lead electrocardiogram (EGC), to estimate the potential ischemic heart changes among the hypertensive patients in a selected Sri Lankan adult population.<br>Methods: A consecutive sample of 150 hypertensive individuals was recruited, and data were gathered through an interviewer-administered questionnaire, RAQ, blood pressure measurement, and ST-segment analysis of standard 12 –lead ECG recordings.<br>Results and Discussion: The majority of the participants (n = 93, 62%) were females. The mean age was 61.5 ± 10.33 years, and their average systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 146 ± 23.27Hgmm and 85 ± 12.08 Hgmm. The association of ST-segment deviations that denote IHDs and the presence of stage I or II hypertension (n = 52, 42%) was statistically significant (p &lt;0.05, df = 1). Based on positive responses to both RAQ and ST-segment deviations, the proportion of individuals with potential Ischemic Heart changes among the hypertensive individuals was 23% (34/150). Except these, 37/150 (25%) of hypertensive individuals, exhibited potential ischemic heart changes only in 12 lead ECG, but the responses to RAQ were negative. On the other hand, responses RAQ was positive among 32/150 (21%) individuals, though none of them exhibited any significant ST-segment changes in their 12 lead ECGs.<br>Conclusion: Based on the utility of RAQ and 12 lead ECG, about a quarter of hypertensive individuals could be detected as having potential ischemic heart changes. Therefore it is suggested that RAQ can be incorporated along with 12 lead ECG into the routine clinical assessment to identify the risk of IHDs among Sri Lankan hypertensive individuals.<br><br></p> BMC. Rathnayake R. P. Illeperuma U. Ralapanawa T.A. Jayalath Copyright (c) 2020 BMC. Rathnayake http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 12 17 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.3 Rhinosporidiosis–An Epidemiological Study http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1036 <p>Introduction: Rhinosporidiosis is a very common and hazardous problem of the South-east Asian region, which involves not only nose but also some other body areas. Though it’s a very old disease, its post-operative recurrence is high and public awareness for eradication or control of the disease is not yet sufficient.<br>Aim: To assess the epidemiological data, clinical presentations, and recurrences of Rhinosporidiosis so that physicians can be guided to diagnose and treat the patients, and health education can be given to peoples of endemic areas to reduce the prevalence and spread of the disease.<br>Materials and Methods: It is an observational study done in the ENT Department of Chittagong Medical College, Chittagong, from March 2018 to February 2020. The sign-symptoms of the disease, rate of recurrence and outcomes of surgery, recurrence rate, etc. were analyzed.<br>Results: A very strong correlation was found between the disease and bathing at canals or ponds. Young Male gender was found significantly<br>related to the disease. Almost all the patients came from low or middle socioeconomic society. Epistaxis with chronic nasal obstruction or nasal mass was found as the commonest clinical presentation.<br>Conclusion: Rhinosporidiosis is highly associated with rural residence, young male adults, and low socioeconomic status of the patients. The post-operative recurrence rate is high .adequate surgical excision with wide base cauterization can reduce the recurrence rate. Social awareness programs and health education programs among the people of the endemic zone can reduce the incidence of the disease.</p> Nurul Karim Chowdhury Abbas Uddin AHM Delwar Abul Kalam Mostafa Mahfuzul Anwar Copyright (c) 2020 Nurul Karim Chowdhury http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 18 21 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.4 A Cross-Sectional Study of Immunization Coverage in Children in Urban Slums of Western Maharashtra http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1037 <p>Background: Children in urban slums suffer accentuated vulnerability to illnesses, as outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases are more common in urban slums. Though the immunization coverage has been steadily increasing, the average level remains far less, which is 62% (NFHS4) than the desired coverage (90%).<br>Objectives: 1) To estimate Immunization coverage in children aged between 12–23 months living in Urban Slum area 2) To study sociodemographic factors influencing immunization coverage &amp; reasons behind missed vaccination.<br>Material and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2018. A sample of 210 children aged 12–23 months was selected using WHO 30 cluster sampling technique from urban slum areas. Data were collected by parent interviews using the pretested questionnaire and checking immunization card.<br>Results: Out of a total of 210 children studied, 106 were boys, and 104 were girls. BCG, OPV1/Penta1, OPV3/Penta3 and Measles1 immunization was received by 207 (98.6%), 203 (96.7%), 181 (86.2%) and 154 (73.3%) children respectively. Socio-demographic factors like Religion, Birthplace, socio-economic status, mother’s education, Mother’s Occupation were found significantly associated with full immunization coverage. Common reasons for missed immunization were sick child (35%) and unawareness of missed doses (23%).<br>Conclusion: In urban slum area coverage of full immunization was found only 66.2%, which is though above the national coverage (62%) but still far lower than the expected coverage under Mission Indradhanush (90%). This demands vigorous efforts to improve immunization through IEC, Community Participation and Inter-sectoral coordination.</p> Kuldeep K. Mitkari Santosh Haralkar Copyright (c) 2020 Kuldeep K. Mitkari http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 22 25 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.5 Carcinosarcoma of Liver – A Rare Entity http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1038 <p>Liver carcinosarcoma is a rare entity, with only 42 cases reported so far. World Health Organization (WHO) has defined carcinosarcoma as a mixture of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. They have an aggressive behaviour with poor outcome. Unlike hepatocellular carcinoma, there is no characteristic imaging feature to diagnose hepatic carcinosarcomas. Surgery remains the only curative option. There is no established optimal chemotherapy regimen for carcinosarcoma. Here we present two cases of primary hepatic carcinosarcoma with extensive metastases.</p> A. Ramya B.M. Sruthi Roopa T. Allwyn Yabesh T. Raja Copyright (c) 2020 A. Ramya http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 26 28 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.6 Surgical Management of Periapical Lesion: A Case Report http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1039 <p>Traumatic injuries are among the most unexpected event that may cause no harm to a pulp or may led to pulpal necrosis and development of periapical pathosis. Treatment ranges from small conservative restoration to apical surgeries. The goal of apical surgery is to prevent leakage of bacteria and their byproducts from the root canal system into peri-radicular tissue. The modern technique utilizes the use of dental operating microscope for illumination and magnification, use of ultrasonics followed by restoration with biocompatible materials. Hence present study describes a case of retreatment successfully treated by periapical surgery.<br><br></p> Shivani Bansal Kalpana Negi Abhishek Kumar Sambhav Jain Copyright (c) 2020 Shivani Bansal http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 29 32 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.7 Leukoplakia: A Comprehensive Review http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1040 <p>Leukoplakia is a potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. It usually presents as a white patch in the oral cavity. The term leukoplakia represents a clinical entity and should preferably be used only for provisional diagnosis and not after histopathology. There are various terminologies and definitions associated with leukoplakia since past times. In this article, we have reviewed the literature to provide a comprehensive update on leukoplakia.</p> Nitish Bhat Kalpna Thakur Lucky Jindal Hemwati Nandan Farheen Arzoo Copyright (c) 2020 Nitish Bhat http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 33 35 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.8 COVID-19: Scenarios of Lethal Advanced Version of its Class http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1041 <p>The viral disease named COVID-19 caused by family coronavirus is one of the biggest outbreaks reported on December 31, 2019, when China reported to the World Health Organisation (WHO) of a cluster of cases of pneumonia and lungs related ailments due to some unknown causative agent in Wuhan City in Hubei Province. The panic grew more when the disease spread recorded in Provinces of China, and now the problem has engulfed all the developed and developing nations of the world. The WHO has now declared it a major pandemic. Origin of virus and its evolutionary history can solve the mystery of this international pandemic outbreak. In the present review, various scenarios are discussed in reference to its origin and its rate of reproducibility in the mammals.</p> Vanya Bawa Copyright (c) 2020 Vanya Bawa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 36 37 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.9 Covid-19 Pandemic: A Curse to World http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1042 <p>The evolving coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread across the world, affecting more than 200 countries and territories. The genomic analysis proposed that the COVID-19 virus first observed in bats and later spread to humans through unidentified intermediate hosts in the Wuhan Seafood Market, China, in December of 2019. COVID-19 belongs to the family of Beta coronavirus and also refers to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV2) due to its genetic similarities with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV- pandemic observed in 2003).<br>At present no any promising treatment strategies or vaccine is available. Hence many researchers and physicians are studying existing agents for its use against COVID-19 infections. Although it provides only symptomatic relief, it helps to halt infection.<br>The intention of this review article is to provide a brief summary of the origin, basic structure, pathogenicity, potent available therapeutic strategies against COVID-19 infection.’</p> Rohit R Doke Ajay A Bhagwat Rahul P Lokhande Copyright (c) 2020 Rohit R Doke http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 7 2 38 41 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.10 The Negative Sense RNA Hantavirus – A Threat to the Modern World http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1049 <p>Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic pathogenic viruses that produce two major clinical syndromes in humans: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). These are negative sense RNA viruses. Each hantavirus type has a single predominant natural reservoir and is transmitted through aerosolized rodent excreta or rodent bites. Case fatality rates for HFRS can reach up to 15% and for HPS can exceed 40%. Very recently, the occurrence of hantavirus has been seen in China in March, 2020. This review summarizes the current knowledge on virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestation, laboratory diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of hantaviruses and hantaviral infections.</p> Keshani S. S. Kanwar Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-20 2020-06-20 7 2 42 47 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.11 Implant Surface Microtopography – A Review http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1050 <p>Osseointegration is the direct contact between the living bone and the implant surface without interposed soft tissue at the microscopic level and it is a critical process for implant stability and consequent short- and long-term clinical success. Surface conditions are particularly important as they play a major role in the osseointegration process. Several characteristics among implant surface, such as surface composition, physicochemical properties, surface wettability, and roughness influence the rate and quality of osseointegration. The goal of this review is to analyze the currently available methods for implant surface modification and also discuss the future trends in surface bioengineering and nanotechnology for improving the osseointegration and consequently their biological performance.</p> Sunny Sharma Ginne Bharti Ramandeep Singh Puneet Gupta Basu Dev Basnet Sonali Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-20 2020-06-20 7 2 48 53 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.12 Drudgery Reduction and Grip Fatigue Review of Indian Women Making Handicrafts http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1051 <p>Indian handicrafts industry provides important segment of decentralization in India and huge employment opportunities are given to artisans including women and backward and weaker society people through this industry. Women give heavy involvement in handicraft production, but their contribution is often veiled by discourses that marginalize them providing very little critical analysis of women’s handicrafts. Grip strength is a generally used to refer the physical strength or muscular power to be generated with the hands. Results at various platforms have shown significant differences for handgrip strength (in kg) between male and female workers and to women majorly in handicraft sector. The repetitive nature of handicraft work causes wrist pain, grip fatigue, and other musculoskeletal disorders among women which are multiplied with house chores. The improved tools are helpful in reducing the grip fatigue and in increasing the work efficiency. Government and other supports to women in handicrafts sector are highly required to reduce the drudgery of women, to make the policies reach women with technical advancements, and to promote the traditional designs with new concepts.</p> Ekta Melkani Manju Mehta Sudesh Gandhi Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-20 2020-06-20 7 2 54 57 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.13 Dental Bleaching: An Overview http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1052 <p>Tooth discoloration can often be corrected totally or partially by bleaching. Bleaching is most opted esthetic procedure because it is conservative, non-invasive, and inexpensive. Different materials and techniques have been proposed to achieve instant whitening with no risk and relapse. The purpose of this literature review is to explain the determinant factors that influence satisfactory final results of the techniques and provide a general overview, to achieve a treatment decision based on evidence.</p> Megha Gupta Jatinder Kalotra Mayank Mall Shivani Targotra Puneet Gupta Anukriti Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-20 2020-06-20 7 2 58 62 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.14 Coronavirus Disease Reinfection in Discharged Patients: An Update http://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1053 <p>EDITORIAL&nbsp;</p> <p>-NA-</p> P. K. Jabir Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy U. Madhusudhan Ramandeep Singh Anita Choudhary G. G. Potey Hirok Chakroborthy V. K. Mahadhik Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-20 2020-06-20 7 2 63 64 10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.2.15