Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS] is an international journal published quarterly. Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, an official publication of Academy of Indian Health Professionals. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality original research work, reviews, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education Forum and Letter to editor that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of health sciences. Articles with timely interest and newer research concepts will be given more preference.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> IJPMR Publishing Press en-US Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences 2350-0964 <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences applies the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)</a>&nbsp;license to published articles. Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but they allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited. Appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.</p> Anthropometric and Bone Health Status of Rural Adult Females at Border Belt of Indian Punjab https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1095 <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted (2018–2019) on randomly selected 70 rural adult females, visiting Community Health Centre, Harike Pattan, district Tarn Taran, Punjab, India. The respondents were interviewed for their sociodemographic profile such as age, education level, and socioeconomic status. Simultaneously, anthropometric parameters, namely, height and weight were recorded; body mass index (BMI) was calculated and obtained data were subjected to t-test and figures were expressed in terms of Mean ± SD. The respondents were categorized according to their BMI categories. Subsequently, blood samples of all the respondents were taken for biochemical parameters such as serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum uric acid by cresolphthalein complexone, ammonium molybdate, and enzymatic methods, respectively, to determine their bone health status. The prevalence of obesity, hypocalcemia, and hyperuricemia was presented in terms of percentage. On the basis of findings obtained on anthropometric parameters, obesity was prevalent among 10% of the respondents. For biochemical parameters, it was observed that hypocalcemia was prevalent among 70% of respondents. Further, serum uric acid of respondents ranged from 3.9 to 8.2 mg/dl and 58.6% of the total respondents had hyperuricemia. On the whole, above findings revealed poor anthropometric and bone health status of rural adult females at border belt of Indian Punjab.</p> Piverjeet Kaur Dhillon Balwinder Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Piverjeet Kaur Dhillon, Balwinder Kumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 7 4 1 4 Raft and Ripple Model on Collective Community Actions for Health Promotion: An Experience from Sri Lanka https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1096 <p>A community-based health promotion project was piloted in Sri Lanka, aiming to improve the growth and development of children below 5 years from 2010 to 2012 by Plan Sri Lanka in collaboration with Foundation for Health Promotion, Ministry of Health, and Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. The project covered over a 100 community settings with an approximate population of 100,000 in 2000 families. The project was facilitated by a team of grass root level healthcare workers and facilitators from the foundation for health promotion. Small group discussions with mothers of children under 5 years of age aimed at initiating collective community actions sustained by self-monitoring mechanisms that proved their effectiveness at setting level. This study is the process evaluation component of the project evaluation conducted in 2012. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, observations, and narratives were used to collect data until the information saturation point is reached. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis method to model the process. The emphasis of this model was on promoting Collective Community Action, a process in which members become engaged in social transformation with greater enthusiasm, knowledge, and skills to affect change in their communities. The inputs, the process, and the generation of collective community actions can be conceptualized by the “raft and ripple model” described in this paper.</p> G. N. Duminda Guruge Manuja Perera Kalana Peiris Copyright (c) 2020 G. N. Duminda Guruge, Manuja Perera, Kalana Peiris https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 7 4 6 10 New Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Review on Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Global Scenario https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1097 <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a β-CoV, and a seventh member of family Coronaviridae causing infection in humans, are the causative agent of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For the 1st time, the disease was reported as an outbreak on December 31, 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, when patients with the symptoms of pneumonia were admitted in hospitals. Soon, the disease became epidemic and spread in 25 provinces in China with a total of 571 cases up to January 24, 2020. At present, COVID-19 has spread across 216 countries. As of July 18, 2020, the World Health Organization confirmed 13,876,441 cases and 593,087 deaths globally, despite rigorous containment and quarantine efforts. The main symptoms of COVID-19 include cough, fever, and fatigue and other symptoms such as headache, hemoptysis, sputum production, dyspnea, and diarrhea and lymphopenia may also arise. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is by demonstrating ribonucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory secretions by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment is supportive, and the role of antiviral agents is yet to be found. Preventive measures include regular and thorough cleaning of hands with soap and water for at least 20 s or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer and social distancing. It is important to develop simple, fast, and accurate technologies for the detection and treatment of COVID-19 to control the spread of the disease.</p> Pratibha Vyas Copyright (c) 2020 Pratibha Vyas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 7 4 11 15 Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of Ovary: Presenting a Unilocular Cyst https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1098 <p>Sclerosing stromal tumors (SSTs) are benign neoplasm of sex cord stromal tumor of ovary. The tumors occur predominantly in young female usually in the 2nd–3rd decades. Incidence is 2–6% of ovarian stromal tumors. It is usually unilateral. Other sex cord stromal tumors of ovary comprised fibromas, thecomas, granulosa cell tumor, Leydig cell tumor, and SST. Due to rarity of SST, most of the time it is not always possible to predict the presence of SST by clinical and radiological findings. The case is being presented for its rarity as the patient presented with unilocular cyst and minimal ascites.</p> Ajit Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Ajit Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 7 4 16 18 Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block for Acute Pain Management for Hip Fracture Patient in the Emergency Department https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1099 <p>Introduction: Pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED) representing 80% of cases. Hip fracture patients are in severe pain on arrival at ED and the provision of appropriate pain relief should be a priority, but proper pain management is still not being conducted in the busy ED. Although fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) seems to be an ideal technique as it does not require expensive equipment and easy to perform in a patient with hip fracture, it is not being used in ED in our setting. This study is designed to assess the effect of anatomic landmark-guided FICB and compare pain score using a numeric rating scale (NRS) in patients with suspected hip fracture pre- and post-block periodically at the different time frames in a resource-poor setting. Methodology: Pain assessment was administered initially with a 10-point NRS that ranged from 0 (“no pain”) to 10 (the worst pain imaginable). Patients having a pain score of more than 6 were given FICB. NRS was evaluated at presentation (−1), pre-block (0 min), and post-block at different time frames up to 6 h. Vital signs (blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, pulse, and SpO2) were recorded at a predetermined time. Thirty minutes after the block, patients were transferred to X-ray where NRS was assessed while positioning for an X-ray. Results: Out of 18 patients, eight were men and the remaining 10 were female, with a mean age of 69 (SD ± 6.9) years. The mean pain score at the triage (−1 min) was 8.1 (SD ± 0.7) and before the block was 7.6 (SD ± 0.7). Over the next 6 h, the patients reported a significantly lower mean pain score with the lowest score of 2.3 (SD ± 0.4) at 180 min. Conclusion: The FICB is effective, safe and can be easily performed by emergency doctors, especially in a resource-limited setting.</p> Rajani Giri R. Bhandari A. Ghimire M. Poudel Yadav Ashok Yadav Ajay Copyright (c) 2020 Rajani Giri, R. Bhandari, A. Ghimire, M. Poudel, Yadav Ashok, Yadav Ajay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 7 4 19 22 Social and Health Impact of Flying Hymenoptera Stings: Experience in a Region of Central Hill Country of Sri Lanka https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1100 <p>Objectives: Stinging by Asian giant honey bee and hornets is a common environmental hazard leading to many hospital admissions in Sri Lanka. This study aims to study the social and health impact of flying hymenoptera stings in a region of the central hill country of Sri Lanka. Methodology: The study was carried out at the two base Hospitals in Teldeniya and Rikillagaskada, Sri Lanka. All the patients presented to these hospitals following a wasp or big bee singing, during the period of 2011–2010 were included in the study. Results: There was a total of 80 patients in this study cohort, with 54 (32%) of them being victims of Horne stings and the rest being big bee stings (n = 26, 68%). The mean age of the total group was 45 years (SD = 16). Stings occurrence between 9.00 am and 3.00 pm was more frequent. The majority of the big bee stings (n = 26, 48%) had occurred while working in tea estates, whereas the hornet attacks were frequent around the dwellings (n = 12, 46%), head and neck (n = 72, 90%), upper limbs (n = 48, 60%), chest (n = 28, 35%), and back of the chest (n = 24, 30%) were the commonly involved body regions. Conclusions: Hymenoptera stings have a significant social and health impact in a region of the central hill country of Sri Lanka. Although pain and swelling were the most common adverse effect, life-threatening anaphylaxis was not reported in this study group. Even though electrocardiogram changes were more common among big bee groups, none of them were fatal.</p> S. A. M. Kularatne Udaya Ralapanawa B. M. P. K. Dheemantha Basnayake Kosala Weerakoon Copyright (c) 2020 S. A. M. Kularatne, Udaya Ralapanawa, B. M. P. K. Dheemantha Basnayake, Kosala Weerakoon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 7 4 23 28 Development and Sensory Evaluation of Pearl Millet Based Value Added Biscuits Blended with Different Non-wheat Flours https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1102 <p>The present study was an attempt to develop value added biscuits containing pearl millet with non-wheat flours for its acceptability among consumers. Biscuits were prepared using different concentrations of pearl millet flour, rice flour, chickpea flour, sesame flour, and peanut flour. The different formulations prepared were Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4, Type 5, and Type 6 in the ratios of (bajra flour: Rice flour: Chickpea flour: Sesame flour: Peanut flour) 100, 90:10, 80:10:10, 75:10:10:05, 75:10:10:0:05, and 70:10:10:10:05:05, respectively, to make cookies. The developed biscuits were sensory evaluated by semi-skilled panelists using nine point hedonic scales. The results showed that biscuit Type 6 was highly acceptable as scored (8.3 ± 0.13) whereas biscuit Type 3 was least acceptable as scored (7.6 ± 0.15). The result shows that biscuit prepared with different concentrations of composite flour (Type 6) was found to be highly acceptable by the panel of judges, thus it will be used further for technology dissemination among masses.</p> Parul Gupta Yashwant Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Parul Gupta, Yashwant Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 7 4 29 32 Link between Urine Specific Gravity and Skipping Breakfast https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1103 <p>The main core of the study was to find any link between urine specific gravity and skipping breakfast. Breakfast helps to regain the nutrients which are lost in the night fasting period. Normal specific gravity of adults ranges from 1.010 to 1.030. Seventy-five subjects, both male and female, associated with Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, were taken in consideration for the present study. It was deduced from the study that urine specific gravity is independent of the habit of skipping breakfast.</p> Muhammad Imran Qadir Aqsa Khalid Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Imran Qadir, Aqsa Khalid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 7 4 33 34 Liver Transaminases as a Predictor of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1104 <p>Objective: Elevation of serum liver transaminase is common during dengue infection. A group of dengue patients was studied to determine the relationship between the elevation of liver transaminases in dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Methodology: This study was conducted to assess the predictive value of liver enzymes for DHF. During the dengue epidemic of 2017, all data pertaining to 601 dengue patients were collected in a systematic manner for purposes of conducting an analysis on the predictive value of serum levels of liver transaminase for DHF. Six hundred one patients were categorized into DF and DHF, according to the World Health Organization 2009 Dengue Management Guidelines. The data were collected retrospectively. Results: There were significant differences between aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among DF and DHF patients, not only on day 5 of the critical phase but also during the acute febrile phase. The area under the ROC curve at the acute febrile phase for AST was 0.7, but in ALT, it was 0.6. However, the area under the ROC curve was 0.70, which indicates that AST at the acute febrile phase is a good indicator of the leaking tendency. According to the coordinate points of the curve, leaking can be predicted with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 60% at an AST value of 59.5. Conclusion: The AST value of 59.5 at the acute febrile phase can be used to predict DHF. However, patients who have significantly elevated transaminase levels during the acute febrile phase have a higher tendency to develop DHF.</p> Udaya Ralapanawa Malinga Gunarathne Sampath Tennakoon A. T. M. Alawaththegama Copyright (c) 2020 Udaya Ralapanawa, Malinga Gunarathne, Sampath Tennakoon, A. T. M. Alawaththegama https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 7 4 35 38 Coronavirus Disease-19: Vaccine Production and Development https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1105 <p>The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which emerged in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019, is now rampantly spreading worldwide. There is a serious need for ultimate treatment of the disease, to stop the spread of the virus globally. In these unprecedented times, vaccines can play a pivotal role in strengthening the immunity of the community. Many drugs are being prescribed in hospital setups to treat the disease caused by the virus. Most of these drugs act as tools for symptomatic relief and palliative care in individuals. A noteworthy drug, favipiravir is being used in some countries like India, for COVID-19 positive patients, who have been hospitalized, in a debilitated state. However, drugs provide a cure at an individual level, but to control such a massive pandemic, a safe and efficacious vaccine is needed. Vaccines are the tools that have a huge impact on “herd immunity.” Not only the researchers but also the general public are eagerly anticipating the development of the vaccine so that they can be relieved of the multiple lockdowns and can rest assured. Unless a safe and efficacious vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is developed, there is always a risk of new outbreaks of the disease. This article highlights some important points that help us feed the curiosities, with information on, what is a vaccine? Why do we need a vaccine for COVID-19? How will the vaccine develop?</p> S. Jatin Singh Copyright (c) 2020 S. Jatin Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 7 4 39 41 COVID-19 Lymphocyte Morphology – A Very Sensitive Parameter in Diagnosing COVID-19 from Peripheral Blood Smear https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1107 <p>laboratory for complete hemogram, were studied over a period of 1 month in August 2020. The lymphocyte morphology in SARS-2 is very characteristic, unlike other viral infections. Based on this morphology, RT-PCR for COVID-19 was advised, the results for which were positive. Hence, this has proved to be a very sensitive and specific parameter in detecting COVID-19. This is the first paper showing correlation between atypical lymphocytes (Covicytes/Virocytes) with positive RT-PCR.</p> Nupur Rastogi Copyright (c) 2020 Nupur Rastogi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-18 2020-10-18 7 4 42 43 Prevalence of Dengue Viral Infection in Febrile Patients of Kanpur Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India in Tertiary Medical Care https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1110 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most important emerging diseases of the tropical and subtropical regions, affecting urban and peri-urban areas.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the study is to know the overview of the symptomology, gender, epidemiology, age, and seasonal variability in a tertiary care setup.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> An analysis of 117 suspected dengue patients of all age groups of either sex at a Medical College located at Kanpur Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India from 2019 to 2020 revealed 31 cases seropositive for dengue.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The lower age group (0–20 years) was the most affected than the others with the incidence proportion of 26.49%. Males were affected more than females with the predominant symptom of fever followed by headache and back pain. The positive cases were found to be higher during November and December months of the study period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that every individual in the community to get awareness of the dengue and to take necessary action for prevention and control of DF.</p> Sandeep Kumar Pal Uday Kumar Vikas Mishra Thulasiraman Parkunan Anshuman Kumar Mukesh Kumar Bharti Anuradha Kumari R. S. Mishra Ramadevi Nimmanapalli Manish Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Sandeep Kumar Pal, Uday Kumar, Vikas Mishra, Thulasiraman Parkunan, Anshuman Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Bharti, Anuradha Kumari, R. S. Mishra, Ramadevi Nimmanapalli, Manish Kumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-24 2020-10-24 7 4 44 47 Determining Community Lifestyle in Sumatra Island during COVID-19 Pandemic Time https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1111 <p>COVID-19 is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. This study aims to look at factors related to the lifestyle of people on the island of Sumatra during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a cross-sectional design with 2020 respondents with age criteria over 16 who lived on the island of Sumatra. The questionnaire in this study was in the form of an e-survey using Google form media and distributed through social media (WhatsApp, Facebook, and Instagram). Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between lifestyle factors in men and women with a level of P &lt; 0.05 and the logistic regression analysis test. The results of this study indicate that there was significant relationship between men and women on smoking behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 142.286; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.134–1997.783), duration of physical activity (OR = 0.473; 95% CI: 0.359–0.624), food consumption (OR = 3.356; 95% CI: 1.672–6.737), salt consumption (OR = 1.596; 95% CI: 1.131–2.251), oil consumption (OR = 1.463; 95% CI: 1.043–2.050), water consumption (OR = 0.652; 95% CI: 0.475–0.895), and hand washing (OR = 4.130; 95% CI: 1.567–10.883). The community is expected to reduce smoking habits, adopt a healthy lifestyle by doing physical activity, consuming salt, oil, and air according to balanced nutrition and implementing hand habits to prevent the impact of COVID-19.</p> Eliza Sumarman Andi Eka Yunianto Windi Indah Fajar Ningsih Emy Yuliantini Miratul Haya Ahmad Faridi Copyright (c) 2020 Eliza, Sumarman, Andi Eka Yunianto, Windi Indah Fajar Ningsih, Emy Yuliantini, Miratul Haya, Ahmad Faridi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-24 2020-10-24 7 4 48 52 Radiological Aspects of Dental Implants: A Narrative Review https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1112 <p>Dental implant technology has undergone dramatic changes in the past few years and has become a significant treatment planning option in restorative dentistry. Dental implants have become an accepted form of permanent tooth replacement. Diagnostic imaging can play an important role in evaluating patients with such implants. Useful imaging studies include panoramic radiography, computed tomography, and computer-reformatted cross-sectional, panoramic, and three-dimensional imaging. Advanced imaging studies can be used to determine the suitability of implant placement, appropriate sites for implant placement, the size of the implant that can be placed, and the need for pre-implantation ridge surgery. This review article summarizes various radiological diagnostic imaging of implants.</p> Syed Sayeed Ahmed M. Ranjith Kumar Ghulam Sarwar Hashmi Copyright (c) 2020 Syed Sayeed Ahmed, M. Ranjith Kumar, Ghulam Sarwar Hashmi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-24 2020-10-24 7 4 53 57 Knowledge and Attitude of Selected Women Beneficiaries about Janani Suraksha Yojana in Samastipur Districts of Bihar https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1113 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme launched by the Honorable Prime Minister of our country on April 12, 2005, for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. JSY integrates cash assistance with antenatal care during the pregnancy period, institutional care during delivery and immediate postpartum period in a health center by establishing systems of coordinated care by the field-level health workers. Reproductive health is a crucial part of general health and a central feature of human development. More than three-quarters of the population of our country live in rural areas lack of knowledge due to maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity continue to be high despite the existence of national programs for improving maternal and child health in India. JSY provided antenatal and postnatal services an important one being non-utilization or under-utilization of maternal health-care services, especially among the rural poor and urban slum population due to either lack of knowledge or access to health-care services very difficult. The quality of care is more important than the quantity. Pregnancy requires specialized care, generally agreed to be a preventive activity. The concept of healthy mother and healthy baby is an important aspect of maternal and child health.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> For this study, we used a questionnaire to collect primary data; secondary data were also used. For the primary data selection, I first came to know about life with selected benefits, then with the help of questioning, I went directly face to face door to door and questioned him, and he gave me an answer an own language. For secondary data, I read a lot of research papers related to this topic and some books, government report, journal abstract, or thesis took many help. This study was conducted in Samastipur district of Bihar. For this purpose, 60 respondents were purposively selected, who were registered in JSY.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The finding of the study showed that about 35% have a high level of knowledge about JSY scheme, 43.34% of beneficiaries having a high level of knowledge about cash assistance given under this scheme.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> About 41.7% of respondents have knowledge about Accredited Social Health Activists workers and 63.3% of respondents have knowledge about the registration timing under the scheme. Followed by out of 60 respondents, 48.34% have overall knowledge regarding JSY services. About 66.6% of beneficiaries have favorable attitude followed by 22.6% beneficiaries having most favorable attitude and only 11.6% of women beneficiaries having the least favorable attitude about JSY scheme.</p> Ruby Kumari Seema Kumari Satya Prakash Copyright (c) 2020 Ruby Kumari, Seema Kumari, Satya Prakash https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-24 2020-10-24 7 4 58 61