Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS] is an international journal published quarterly. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality original research work, reviews, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education Forum and Letter to editor that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of health sciences. Articles with timely interest and newer research concepts will be given more preference.</p> <p>All articles published in this journal represent the opinion of the authors and not reflect the official policy of the Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS]. All papers are subjected to double blinded peer-review.</p> <h3>WHY TO PUBLISH WITH US?</h3> <div class="row"> <div class="divstyle"> <div class="col-md-6"> <ul> <li class="show">Worldwide dissemination through open access,</li> <li class="show">Immediate access of research of global audience,</li> <li class="show">Includes all health specialities.</li> <li class="show">Fast and efficient online submission.</li> <li class="show">Double Blind Peer Review System.</li> <li class="show">Unique and extensive assistance to authors.</li> <li class="show">Quarterly 4 issues per year.</li> <li class="show">Free full text availability of articles in PDF.</li> <li class="show">Best Advisory &amp; Reviewer Board. Legends of Medicine &amp; Health sciences associated with APJHS team.</li> <li class="show">APJHS Team comprises Editorial board members from different parts of globe.</li> <li class="show">Cross Ref and DOI Citation.</li> <li class="show">Entire Issue/Journal can be downloaded free from the website.</li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> en-US <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences applies the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)</a>&nbsp;license to published articles. Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but they allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited. Appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.</p> editorapjhs@gmail.com (Dr. J. K. Mukkadan) infoapjhs@gmail.com (Priyanka) Sat, 09 Oct 2021 11:04:14 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Design, Development, Formulation, and Evaluation of Gastro retentive Floating Tablet for Anti-diabetic Agent https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1528 <p>The main aim of the research was to persist the gastric residence time of vildagliptin by designing its gastro-retentive tablet as well as to study the effect of different polymers on its release rate using 23 randomized full factorial designs. Tablets are manufactured by direct compression method. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was used as matrixing agent, M.C.C., and Na2Co3 were used. The manufactured tablets assessed for physicochemical parameters such as weight variety, hardness, friability, floating properties (total floating time and floating lag time), in vitro drug release, and drug content, and stability study. The drug- polymer interaction was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). On the basis of preliminary batches, the PF3 batch giving more drug release so that the PF3 batch is used for DoE process. Formulation F7 had been selected as an optimum formulation as it displayed more comparison in dissolution profile with theoretical profile which is 99.89 ± 0.49%. The dissolution of batch F7 can be described by zero order kinetics (R2 = 0.954), First order- R2 = 0.87, Higuchi R2 = 0.989, and Peppa’s R2 = 0.99. Also studied X-ray Photographic Studies in Rabbits and showed tablet was float more than 8 h in gastric region of the Albino rabbits. It could be concluded from this study that the prepared Gastro-retentive tablet could reduce the frequency of dosage, dose related side effects, and increase the bioavailability.</p> Vasim Pathan, Vishal Gulecha, Amar Zalte, Anil Jadhav Copyright (c) 2021 Vasim Pathan, Vishal Gulecha, Amar Zalte, Anil Jadhav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1528 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prediction of walking Asymmetry using Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters and Guidance for fall risk Prediction or Geriatric Care: Experimental Study for Indian Population https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1529 <p>Gait analysis allows the quantitative assessment of gait to recognize its associated variation and disorders. The reliability of analysis gets augmented when being compared with standard documented normative dataset. The purpose of this study is to establish the spatiotemporal gait parameters for the normative dataset for Indian Population. Eighty healthy subjects aged between 20 and 70 years with no impairments affecting gait, recorded their Footfall on self-selected walking speed on GAITRite® Electronic walkway. Successive ten iteration of Barefoot and Comfortable (specific to person) shoe wear walk are Considered to generate one record. Mean, standard deviation, coefficient of correlation, 95% Confidence Interval, and 95% Prediction Interval are calculated using descriptive statistics. Healthy Gait is often characterized as symmetric to verify, bilateral spatiotemporal parameters are considered and mean, standard Deviation, Variance, and Min-Max ranges are obtained. Chosen Spatial and temporal characteristics are taken into consideration separately to demonstrate role in diverse test cases to get the result. Obtained singular and bilateral ranges are recorded for classification of Symmetry and Asymmetry and based on that algorithm is proposed for identifying Gait Asymmetry. Study of these ranges provides the guideline for geriatric care.</p> Neha Sathe, Anil Hiwale, Archana Ranade Copyright (c) 2021 Neha Sathe, Anil Hiwale, Archana Ranade https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1529 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ashvattha Patra (Leaf of Ficus religiosa Linn.) in the Secondary Prevention of Dyslipidemia https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1636 <p>Introduction: Dyslipidemia is a group of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, which includes over production or deficiency of lipoproteins or both. In developed countries, most of dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood, which is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of Ashvattha Patra in dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: A total number of 41 patients were included in the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Patients of Group A were treated with 100 ml of Ashvattha Patra Kwath (decoction) and Group B patients were provided 100 ml lukewarm water as placebo for 45 days. The outcome of clinical treatment was analyzed statistically using paired, unpaired t-test on GraphPad-Instat software Version 3.06. Results: Significant improvements were seen in total cholesterol, serum triglyceride level, and serum very low-density lipoprotein level not significant result recorded in serum low-density lipoproteins level. Conclusion: Decoction of leaves of Ficus religiosa was able to work on lipid and lipoprotein significantly.</p> Ashish Kumar Gupta, Charu Bansal, Umesh Shukla, Trupti Jain, Vijendra Singh Mandloi Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish Kumar Gupta, Charu Bansal, Umesh Shukla, Trupti Jain, Vijendra Singh Mandloi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1636 Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A Pharmacological Review https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1531 <p>Sphaeranthus indicus (SI) Linn. belonging to the family Asteraceae, the whole plant as well as various parts of plant widely used for curing various ailments in the Indian traditional system of medicine. This review focused on review of various pharmacological activities of SI such as anxiolytic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective activity, antimicrobial, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, neuroleptic, antiviral, ovicidal, anthelmintic activities, and various other activities. Based on vast medicinal use and preclinical trials of this plant, the reported pharmacological activities of SI are covered in this review for exploring the enormous medicinal potential of this plant.</p> Devendra S. Shirode, Pranav Devidas Shevkar, Bindurani L G P Ram Copyright (c) 2021 Devendra S. Shirode, Pranav Devidas Shevkar, Bindurani L G P Ram https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1531 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on the Dietary Consumption Pattern of Adolescents and Intake of High Salt Foods and Frequency of Mealtimes during the Coronavirus Disease-19 Lockdown https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1571 <p>Background: The lockdown restrictions due to coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 led to increased level of stress and reduced physical activity. The relationship between sodium intake and arterial blood pressure (BP) values in adolescence is well studied. The intake of high-sodium processed foods has increased globally, especially during lockdown. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the dietary pattern of adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown and to assess the changes in the consumption pattern of adolescents for high salt foods and the risk of overweight during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methodology: A food frequency questionnaire was prepared to obtain a general idea about the adolescent population’s dietary pattern with relation to high salt foods. Due to the lockdown and social distancing, an online form was created using Google Forms. Seventy-five samples participated in the study and all of them belonged to middle to high socioeconomic status. Results: It was reported that all the subjects added salt in their meals. Adolescents reported consuming 1–3 servings of frozen ready-to-eat foods, papads, pickles, and ready-to-eat packaged foods which are high in sodium content. There was no significant difference observed between salt intake and body mass index (BMI) in the adolescents (P = 0.56), except for the consumption of packaged crisps (P = 0.04). A highly significant correlation was obtained (P = 0.00) between the increase in the frequency of meals and the risk for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: It was concluded that excess consumption of salt in the long term may cause hypertension and increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. Staying at home and direct access to food during the COVID -19 lockdown has led to the increase in the frequency of meals consumed and which had a direct effect on BMI.</p> Rabab Chobawala, Rupali Sengupta Copyright (c) 2021 Rabab Chobawala, Rupali Sengupta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1571 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Aligarh, India: A Pilot Study https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1532 <p>Introduction: Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme in erythrocytes is among the prevalent X-linked recessive genetic disorders and affects approximately 400 million people across the globe. It causes neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, also hemolysis eventually leading to hemolytic anemia when exposed to oxidative stress. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to find out the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Aligarh (Western Uttar Pradesh) India. Materials and Methods: The data and samples were collected from a total of 106 individuals. All the required information were recorded in a standardized questionnaire, blood was taken with their prior consent. Blood typing test and fluorescent spot test (FST) were performed, spots were arranged accordingly and observed. Results: Out of total 106 individuals surveyed, 10% of them were found to be deficient for G6PD enzyme, 5% were intermediate, and 85% were normal. Significant association was found for G6PD deficiency and gender (P &lt; 0.05) of the individuals while non-significant association were reported for G6PD deficiency and consanguinity (P &lt; 0.8) and for G6PD deficiency and blood groups (P &lt; 0.9). Conclusion: FST is a good method for G6PD screening and detecting the deficiency in fields. This pilot study highlights the prevalence of G6PD enzymopathy in Aligarh and will help government programs of this area to prevent and control the genetic disorder</p> Rafat Fatma, Waseem Chauhan, Mohammad Afzal Copyright (c) 2021 Rafat Fatma, Waseem Chauhan, Mohammad Afzal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1532 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ashvattha patra (Leaf of Ficus religiosa Linn.) in the Secondary Prevention of Dyslipidemia https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1533 <p>Dyslipidemia is a group of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, which includes over production or deficiency of lipoproteins or both. In developed countries, most of dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood, which is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of Ashvattha patra in dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: A total number of 41 patients were included in the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Patients of Group A were treated with 100 ml of A. patra Kwath (decoction) and Group B patients were provided 100 ml lukewarm water as placebo for 45 days. The outcome of clinical treatment was analyzed statistically by using paired, unpaired t-test on GraphPad-Instat software Version 3.06. Results: Significant improvements were seen in total cholesterol, Serum triglyceride level, and serum VLDL level. Not significant result recorded in serum LDL level. Conclusion: Decoction of leaves of Ficus religiosa was able to work on lipid and lipoprotein significantly.</p> Ashish Kumar Gupta, Charu Bansal, Umesh Shukla, Trupti Jain, Vijendra Singh Mandloi Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish Kumar Gupta, Charu Bansal, Umesh Shukla, Trupti Jain, Vijendra Singh Mandloi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1533 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Do Psychological Fear Factors in the Poor Pregnant Women Lead to Anemia? https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1584 <p>Background: Anemia very specifically iron deficiency anemia remains a threat for the women of reproductive thereby increasing the maternal and neonatal mortality. Besides pregnancy depressions, there are a wide range of psychological fears that run in the minds of pregnant women in Rajasthan altering either their eating pattern or affecting their antenatal care and visits which directly or indirectly become a cause for anemia. Objectives: The aim is to identify the psychological fear factors leading to anemia in the target group. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire-based, descriptive study of the pregnant women at Janana Hospital for their antenatal visits and delivery. Description statistics was applied to come to the inferences. Results: It was found that fear of the pandemic, violence by the intimate partner, fear of girl child, and the taunt arising from the mother having no male kept the pregnant women away from the antenatal care which led to a late diagnosis of anemia. Barrenness and occult practices altered their approach to diet which too became a cause for anemia. Mud eating also had an impact on anemia (picca). Conclusion and Recommendation: Psychological factors have a role in causing anemia during pregnancy. Proper education, awareness programs specially in this pandemic period.</p> Swapana John, Prakash C. Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Swapana John, Prakash C. Sharma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1584 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Pharmacotherapy of Type II Diabetes in Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital and Private Clinic https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1534 <p>Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a bunch of disorders of metabolism that share the phenotypic sign of hyperglycemia. Different variants of DM are caused due to the interaction of various genetic factors with environmental factors. Materials and Methods: This is prospective, comparative, and observational study. The study was conducted at SMBT Medical Institute and Research Centre Dhamangaon Nashik and private Diabetic clinic. Each center was 50 purposive sampling. Inclusion Criteria: All those patients who are diagnosed with Type II Diabetes and age of 18 years and above belonging to either gender were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria: Patients who are not willing to sign the informed consent were excluded from the study. Those individuals who are having Type I diabetes and suffering from co-morbid conditions such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and immune deficiency syndrome were excluded. Results: In our study, results revealed that mono and combination therapies for the treatment of type II DM. The present study revealed that most of the physicians initially prescribed mono therapy (25%) includes Metformin/Glibenclamide/Glimepiride/Gliclazide to control hyperglycemia followed by dual therapy (35%) FDC of Metformin + Pioglitazone/Metformin + Glipizide/Metformin + Glimepiride/Metformin + Saxagliptin/Metformin + Voglibose and triple therapy (40%) includes Metformin + Glimepiride + Pioglitazone in group A. In Group B, mono therapy (35%) and triple therapy (35%) were used more commonly over dual therapy (30%) to control hyperglycemic. Conclusion: Hence, while comparing between tertiary care versus private care hospital, Group A: Biguanide: Metformin and Sulfonylureas: Glibenclamide, Glipizide, Gliclazide, and Glimepiride was most commonly prescribed drug. In Group B: Dapagliflozin (Sodium-glucose co-transport-2 inhibitors) and Teneligliptin: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were most commonly used in private hospital.</p> Kshirsagar Vinay Kumar, Maulin Mehta Copyright (c) 2021 Kshirsagar Vinay Kumar, Maulin Mehta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1534 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Prescription Pattern of Drugs Prescribed in the Outpatient Department of a Private Orthopedic Hospital – A Cross-sectional Study https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1535 <p>Background: Drug utilization research (DUR) is vital in the health sector as it offers insight into the efficacy of drug use. The findings of DUR studies can help set goals for the rational use of drugs and health-care funds distribution. Objective: The objective of this DUR study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of drugs prescribed in the outpatient department (OPD) of a private orthopedic hospital. Settings and Design: The study was a cross-sectional, prospective, and observational study conducted at the OPD of a private orthopedic hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a 6-month duration (from October 2020 to March 2021) at the OPD of a private orthopedic hospital and studied 609 prescriptions using the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended prescribing indicators. Statistical Analysis Used: Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 26.0 were used to capture and analyze the data of the study. Results: A total of 3082 drugs were prescribed in 609 prescriptions. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was 5.1 (SD = 1.9). Drugs prescribed using generic name of the drug were 2.6%, the encounters with an antibiotic and an injection prescribed were 39.4% and 7.1%, respectively. The drugs prescribed from the essential drugs list were 38.9%. In addition, vitamins and supplements (32.1%) were prescribed the most followed by analgesics (24.2%) and antacids (16.6%). Conclusions: The study highlighted the inadequate compliance with the WHO recommended prescribing indicators and suggested a need to train physicians and spread awareness about writing rational prescriptions, benefitting the patient.</p> Amol Gujar, Vishal Gulecha, Amar Zalte Copyright (c) 2021 Amol Gujar, Vishal Gulecha, Amar Zalte https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1535 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of In vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Adenanthera pavonina (Fabaceae) Extract in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1536 <p>Objective: Adenanthera pavonina is a deciduous tree commonly used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such as boils, epilepsy, blood disorders, seizures, inflammation, and rheumatism. However, the use of this plant extract lacks scientific validation as to its effectiveness. Materials and Methods: This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antidiabetic activity of the methanolic extract of A. pavonina leaves in alloxanized diabetic rats. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed. The antidiabetic property was evaluated by oral administration of plant extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight and by profiling blood glucose levels at 1, 7, 14, and 21 days using a glucometer. Results: The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, proteins, amino acids, and steroids. The blood glucose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of plant extract on day 21 of the study was 188.41 ± 8.46 mg/dL and 182.01 ± 9.21 mg/dL, respectively, compared to the diabetic control 291.01 ± 10.25 mg/dL. Conclusion: The methanolic extract from the leaves of A. pavonina showed dose-dependent antidiabetic activity in alloxanized diabetic rats. The results suggest that the plant extract has significant (P &lt; 0.01) antidiabetic activity.</p> Rohini C. Kolhe, Rajesh Y. Chaudhari, Vijay R. Patil Copyright (c) 2021 Rohini C. Kolhe, Rajesh Y. Chaudhari, Vijay R. Patil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1536 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Medical Professionals toward Antibiotics https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1537 <p>Introduction: Antibiotics are wonderful drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases but are in danger because of a reduction in their efficacy. Antibiotic resistance is becoming a public health problem worldwide. There is number of contributing factors that are responsible for antibiotic resistance. Physicians play a vital role in antibiotic usage and prescribing practices. In the present study, we will assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of medical professionals of Hisar and Mahindergarh District of Haryana, India for antibiotics. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on medical professionals who are prescribing antibiotics through survey conducted via mail. Results: The study received 100% responses from all the participants. Among which 41% are prescribing antibiotic on 1st day of investigation and 77% are using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Although they have proper knowledge of resistance still the practicing antibiotics is not that much good. There is a lack of policy related to antibiotic usage. All respondents are in favor of eliminating self-medication and excess use of antibiotics. Conclusion: The knowledge of antibiotic usage and resistance is good but still, there is a gap between knowledge and prescription practices. There is a need for a policy for antibiotic usage and a general awareness program for common people.</p> Palka Mittal, Anmolika Watal, Gaurav Aggarwal, Sanjay Bhardwaj Copyright (c) 2021 Palka Mittal, Anmolika Watal, Gaurav Aggarwal, Sanjay Bhardwaj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1537 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Agnikarma with Adjuvant Drug in the Management of Frozen Shoulder (Avabahuka) – A Case Report https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1538 <p>Agnikarma is superior to all parasurgical interventions narrated by father of surgery. Avabahuka can be correlated with frozen shoulder that affects routine activity by painful shoulder and restricted shoulder joint movements. This case report is an evidence to support alternative therapy in the management of frozen shoulder. A 50-year-old female presented with a 1 year history of gradual onset of painful restricted movements of the right shoulder, radiating pain from the right shoulder to elbow joint. The patient was diagnosed as a case of frozen shoulder and was treated with four sittings of Bindu Dagdha Agnikarma with Pachadhatu Shalaka along with orally Dashmooladi kwatha 50 ml at evening with empty stomach once daily and Haritaki Churna 3 g with lukewarm water at bed time for 28 days. After completion of the treatment, the patient got relieved from pain and restricted shoulder joint movement along with improvement in complete abduction, flexion, extension, adduction, and external rotation. Promising role of Agnikarma and adjuvant medicines is supposed to subside Vata Kapha dominant Sthanika Shotha (localized swelling) and as a result of this, it may have improved the shoulder joint movements.</p> Manisha Kapadiya, Foram Joshi, T. S. Dudhamal Copyright (c) 2021 Manisha Kapadiya, Foram Joshi, T. S. Dudhamal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1538 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Patient’s Perspective on Barriers and Facilitators in Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1539 <p>Objective: The purpose of this review is to summarize existing knowledge regarding various barriers and facilitators in the management of Type 2 diabetes from the perspective of patients. Method: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted which included three sources PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, and studies from 1997 to 2021 were included. Around 1687 papers were screened and 46 studies were included in the final analysis. Result: Three major areas of barriers and facilitators in Type 2 diabetes management were identified: Individual factors: factors which are emerging due to a patient’s personal ability to take care of type 2 diabetes (adherence to diet, physical activity, self-monitoring of blood glucose, medication adherence, psychological factors: this includes emotional factors, beliefs and attitude of patients. Organizational factors: it includes diabetes education factors, economic constraints and health care provider’s issues and social factors: this includes factors associated with family, friends, and others social issues. Conclusion: Identifying barriers to diabetes management is vital to improve the quality of care of diabetes patients, including the improvement of glycemic control, and diabetes self-management. Further research which considers these barriers and facilitators are necessary for developing interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes.</p> Divya Tripathi, Anjali, Komal Rathi, Pooja Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 Divya Tripathi, Anjali, Komal Rathi, Pooja Tiwari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1539 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Policy Making in Health-care Management: Issues and Challenges https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1540 <p>Kerala has become a success and a model for the country, especially in increasing life expectancy as well as reducing infant and maternal mortalities. However, there exists a wide disparity in health-care spending in the country. This disparity can be mainly attributed to the social, political, and economic circumstances prevailing in the states of India. The contribution of Missionary hospitals in addressing this equity gap is noteworthy. An organized movement in health-care sector was initiated by the missionary churches by establishing a variety of health-care formats in Kerala. Among the various stakeholders, the policymakers and leaders have a very relevant and challenging responsibility in envisioning and innovating policies, strategies, and finding creative ways of management and sustainability. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, done among the missionary hospitals under Catholic Church in Kerala which are registered under CHAI Kerala. The study is limited to ten hospitals from five zones. The data are collected through questionnaire from fifty policymakers of ten hospitals spread all over the State of Kerala. The study shows that there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of policymakers with the health-care management based on their age and association with the institution. There is difference in the leadership quality exhibited by policymakers based on gender. Moreover, there is a significant difference in service quality based on their tenure of association with the institution. Along with sociodemographics, policies, and regulations, social responsibilities were the other factors found as major challenges in health-care management for the policymakers.</p> Pradeep V. Mammen, Susan Abraham Copyright (c) 2021 Pradeep V. Mammen, Susan Abraham https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1540 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PSORIASIS - A Mini Review https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1585 <p>Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory squamous cell disease of papules that is characterized by multiple remissions and relapses. This has long been considered a serious violation of keratinization. The successful use of traditional immune suppressants and new immune modulators in the treatment of psoriasis has led to the belief that psoriasis is, in fact, a disorder of Th1 cell immunodeficiency. Recent developments have led to several new discoveries such as the role of Th17 cells and evidence of skin barrier dysfunction in psoriasis similar to atopic dermatitis. Psoriasis is an atypical, systemic autoimmune disease of unknown cause, mainly affecting the skin, spreading further to the nails and joints and causing arthritis. The treatment protocol should be based on the patient’s condition. People with mild psoriasis can be treated primarily with topical medications, while people with moderate to severe psoriasis can be treated with systemic medications.</p> Rahul Kumar, Rajat Kumar, Rahul Anthal, Prerna, Rajat Kumar, Devkant Sharma, Anurag Bhargava Copyright (c) 2021 Rahul Kumar, Rajat Kumar, Rahul Anthal, Prerna, Rajat Kumar, Devkant Sharma, Anurag Bhargava https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1585 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 In Vitro Assessment of Herbal Topical Ethosomal Gel Formulation for the Treatment of Acne vulgaris https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1633 <p>Anti-acne herbal formulations are utilized for the treatment of acne vulgaris with the additional benefit of not creating adverse effects, unlike synthetic drugs. Phytoconstituents present in methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have antibacterial and antioxidant properties. An approved UV spectrophotometer confirmed the presence of glycyrrhizin in these extracts. Extracts loaded with Carbopol 940 were utilized for the preparation of herbal drug-loaded ethosomal gel formulations (EF1, EF2, and EF3) at various times and followed the assessment of ethosomal gel formulation. The evaluation of ethosomal gel formulation done by pH, viscosity, spreadability, texture analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR spectral analysis, in vitro drug release study, and antioxidant activity against Propionibacterium acnes. Herbal ethosomal gel formulation demonstrated antibacterial potential and was additionally assessed for skin permeation by gamma scintigraphy utilizing hydrophilic radiotracer 99mTc-DTPA and lipophilic radiotracer 99mTc-MIBI. Significant permeation (1.3 μg/mg) was seen with a hydrophilic radiotracer named 99mTc-DTPA-PHF and this proposed that the formulation was equipped with sustained drug delivery for the treatment of moderate to an extreme type of acne.</p> Imran Hyder, Arif Naseer, Adil Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Imran Hyder, Arif Naseer, Adil Ahmad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1633 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Glycoinformatics in Biomedical Research: A Review https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1676 <p>Glycans and their physiological receptors – lectins and glycoconjugates, participate in many crucial biological processes such as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, adhesion, signaling, differentiation, and development and therefore glycans may serve as identification molecules to the surrounding world. Advancements in the field of glycoinformatics have made it possible to analyze and synthesize glycans, thus helping in production of carbohydrate-based drugs. The results obtained with the use of bioinformatics in the field of study of carbohydrate moieties will be helpful in the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, the present review highlighted the various databases used in the glycoinformatics study and their implications in statistical analysis of glycan databases help to plan glycan synthesis experiments.</p> Renuka Malhotra Copyright (c) 2021 Renuka Malhotra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1676 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Analytical Study of Angular Kinematical Variables during Execution of Toe-touch Skill among Various Levels Kabaddi Players – A Pilot Study https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1592 <p>Aim of Study: The aim of this study was to find out the difference in selected angular kinematical variables during the execution of toe-touch skill among various level kabaddi players (raiders). Material and Methods: Twenty male raiders were selected for this study. The age of the subjects was ranged between 18 to 25 years. Selected angular kinematical variables: leading leg ankle joint, trailing leg ankle joint, leading leg knee joint, trailing leg knee joint were measured by Kinovea software. The normality of data was tested by Shapiro-Wilk test. One-way analysis of variance was applied to find out the difference for selected variables between various groups for normal data. Post-hoc test was applied for pairwise comparison. Kruskal Wallis test was applied for non-normal data. Results: Kruskal Wallis revealed that there was no significant difference in case of leading leg ankle joint (p = .231), leading leg knee joint (p = .163) and trailing leg knee joint (p = .785) variables among various levels kabaddi players during the execution of toe-touch skill. ANOVA revealed that there was significant difference in case of trailing leg ankle joint (p = .011) variable among various levels kabaddi players during the execution of toe-touch skill. Conclusion: The study concludes that junior national level raiders possess highest angle at trailing leg ankle joint during the execution of toe touch skill.</p> Jasvir Ram, Joseph Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Jasvir Ram, Joseph Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1592 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Miniscrew-assisted Rapid Palatal Expander – Non-surgical Method for Maxillary Expansion in Young Adults Based on Histological Review https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1670 <p>Expansion is one of the most effectual orthopedic procedures for the treatment of maxillary constriction. Slow and rapid palatal expansion (RPE) are two reliable and commonly used procedures to correct transverse maxillary deficiencies. RPE produces good adaptation at skeletal level in children and adolescents. By late adolescence, the mid-palatal suture allows only limited skeletal expansion and may produce undesirable dental effects. Miniscrew-assisted RPE (MARPE) extended not only skeletal effects with fewer dental changes but also the age limit of nonsurgical maxillary expansion treatment. This review article evaluates the role of MARPE in widening the scope of non-surgical orthodontic treatment from various aspects with a focus on recent studies.</p> Aarthi Vadivel, D. Muralidharan, R. Thirunavukkarasu, C. Nirupama, J. Tamizhmani, C. Prasanth Copyright (c) 2021 Aarthi Vadivel, D. Muralidharan, R. Thirunavukkarasu, C. Nirupama, J. Tamizhmani, C. Prasanth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1670 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Activity of Different Shoulder Muscles during Dynamic Bear Crawl Exercise https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1541 <p>Comparative repeated-measure study done on 21 healthy male subjects to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity of the serratus anterior (SA), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT) muscles during push-up plus (PUP) and dynamic bear crawl (DBC) exercises. The subjects performed PUP and DBC exercises 3 times on a stable surface. Surface EMG activity of the SA, UT, MT, and LT was collected from the dominant arm and presented as a percentage of the maximal voluntary contraction. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA with a Friedman’s test was performed to compare differences in EMG activity of SA, UT, MT, and LT during PUP and DBC exercises. The SA and UT activities were significantly greater during the DBC exercise. LT and MT muscle activities were significantly greater during the PUP exercise. The peak and average SA and UT activity were greatest during the DBC exercise on a static stable surface. This result indicates that DBC exercise on the static stable surface is more effective to activate the SA and UT.</p> Srinivasa Rao Pachava, Dharamveer Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Srinivasa Rao Pachava, Dharamveer Yadav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1541 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of ultrasound irradiation on some Biophysical Parameters of Human Blood (in vitro) https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1563 <p>Ultrasound is commonly employed in clinical practice as a part of physical therapy. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of ultrasound irradiation on some Biophysical Parameters (pH, Conductivity, and Refractive index) of human blood. Blood samples of volume 5 ml were collected from the donors each time an experiment was performed. Blood was then transferred to heparin anticoagulant tubes. The human blood samples were divided into two parts, that is, control sample and sample for irradiation. The human blood sample was irradiated using an ultrasonic interferometer of 3MHz frequency for a duration of 1 h in an identical and controlled environment. The biophysical parameter was determined and compared with that of the control sample. Variations were observed in the values of pH, conductivity, and refractive index of ultrasonically irradiated human blood sample compared with that of the control sample. This study gives us an idea regarding the effect of ultrasound on some of the most important biophysical parameters of human blood. Further, the results obtained in the present study can be utilized in the future for the work on the biological effects of ultrasound and interpret the in vivo effects.</p> Mohd Abdul Saleem, Kaleem Ahmed Jaleeli Copyright (c) 2021 Mohd Abdul Saleem, Kaleem Ahmed Jaleeli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1563 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Factors for Cessation of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Mothers of Infants https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1586 <p>Background: For the healthy growth of a child, it is essential that the child be breastfed exclusively for 6 months and continued up to 2 years of their age. Although the practice of breastfeeding is common in India, the District Level Household and Facility Survey showed that the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) dropped from 63% &lt;1 month to 49% under 3 months and 32% under 5 months. Aim: This study was undertaken to identify the factors for cessation of EBF among mothers in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: It was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where 80 mothers of infants who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected by purposive sampling technique. Fifteen factors addressing the main reasons for cessation of EBF were developed. Results: The results revealed that during the 1st month, 78 (97.5%) of the mothers provided EBF, during the 2nd month, 87.5% of the mothers provided EBF, and during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th month, 80%, 54%, and 26% of the mothers provided EBF, respectively. The factors leading to cessation of EBF by mothers were not having sufficient milk (77.5%), going back to work (51%), had too many household chores (60%), felt tired due to breastfeeding (42.5%) and baby-centered factors such as baby continuing to remain hungry even after taking breastfeed (51%), baby failed to breastfeed (47.5%), and baby not gaining adequate weight (48.5%). Conclusion: EBF continues to be low among the mothers. Strategies need to be undertaken to improve EBF.</p> P. Sumathy, S. Rajeswari, G. Priyalatha Copyright (c) 2021 P. Sumathy, S. Rajeswari, G. Priyalatha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1586 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Characterization of Mundulea sericea Leaf Extracts and Analysis of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1657 <p>Many developing countries are focusing on the plant-based drug for various human diseases for less or no side effects, low cost and are easily available. Hence, we need to find the new phytochemicals and their biological activities. For this reason, the present study was designed to screen the phytochemical constituents of various solvent-based leaf extracts of Mundulea sericea for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. Through preliminary phytochemical qualitative screening, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) spectrum analysis with standard procedures, phytochemical analysis of M. sericea leaf hexane (MSLH), M. sericea leaf petroleum ether (MSLPE), M. sericea leaf chloroform (MSLC), M. sericea leaf ethyl acetate (MSLEA), M. sericea leaf ethanol (MSLE), M. sericea leaf methanol (MSLM) extracts was studied. Further, MSLE extract was examined for free radical scavenging of DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide antioxidant methods and also evaluated antidiabetic activity by α-amylase and α-glucosidase assays. As a result of the phytochemical analysis, several phytochemical compounds were identified. Among the extracts, MSLE and MSLM extracts contain more secondary metabolites than other extracts. Furthermore, those secondary metabolites chemical compound constituents were identified through FTIR and GC–MS spectrum analysis. At a higher concentration, MSLE extract showed good antioxidant activity which is similar to the one found in standard antioxidant tests. The maximum antioxidant activity was reported in nitric oxide (79.37%) at 250 μg/ml concentration. Furthermore, MSLE extracts were showed good antidiabetic activity in α-glucosidase (70.70%) at 500 μg/ml concentration. As per the study, MSLE extract has effective phytochemical constituents and also acts as a novel antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. Further, investigation is needed to confirm ethanol extract as a novel therapeutic drug.</p> S. Gangadevi, P. Viswanathan, K. Kalimuthu, V. Chinnadurai Copyright (c) 2021 S. Gangadevi, P. Viswanathan, K. Kalimuthu, V. Chinnadurai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1657 Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Anxiety among Young Adults https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1615 <p>Anxiety is not a new term in the academic and social environment for young adults. From examination anxiety to adjustment problems at higher school, university, and workplace, anxiety has many adverse effects on young adult performance and mental health. Emotional intelligence provides us the ability to deal effectively with mental abnormality and anxiety in a different environment. At the university level, there were young adults of different social, cultural, and economic strata, so the university or workplace environment has a different impact on their level of affiliation and interaction. The present study aims to find out the relationship between these two constructs among young adults. Emotional intelligence level measured by the Kumar, A. I Narain, S. Emotional Intelligence Scale EIS-SANS, National Psychological Corporation (2014). The construct of anxiety level is measured by the Hamilton M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating. Br J Med Psychol 1959; 32:50–55. Two hundred and fourteen (n = 214) young adults from different parts of India constitute the sample of this study out of 214 respondents, 127 males and 87 females respondents between the age range of 20 and 40 years. The collected data were analyzed ANOVA and correlation through SPSS (Version 26). The results revealed that there is a fragile association between emotional intelligence level and level of anxiety; results revealed that there is a negative correlation between emotional intelligence and anxiety (r = −0.061, P &lt; 0.05). The findings of this study have established that there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and anxiety across gender of young adults, and male respondents had a better emotional intelligence which helps them to cope up with anxiety, female respondents, slightly behind in such conditions</p> Prabhat Kumar, Shalini Agarwal, Sharmila Khwairakpam, Dinesh Raj Modi Copyright (c) 2021 Prabhat Kumar, Shalini Agarwal, Sharmila Khwairakpam, Dinesh Raj Modi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1615 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Stability-Indicating Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method Development and Validation of Lamotrigine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1734 <p>In the current study, analytical method has been validated by system suitability parameters, linearity, accuracy and percent recovery, precision, ruggedness, robustness, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The present study of lamotrigine was achieved using Cosmosil C18 (250 nm×4.6 ID, particle size: 5 Micron) Column with mobile phase methanol: water (60:40) pH: 3 at a flow rate 0.8 ml/min with UV detection at 308 nm. The retention time for lamotrigine was found to be 4.979 min. In linearity, the correlation coefficient (R2) for lamotrigine was found to be 0.999, slope is 39,801, and intercept was found to be 51,862 which are well within the acceptance criteria. The mean percent recovery for lamotrigine at three different levels for 50%, 100%, and 150% was found to be 99.28%, 99.30%, and 100.40%. The % RSD should not more than 2%. In precision study, interday (RSD is 0.41%) and intraday (RSD is 0.26%) are found. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing standard form of lamotrigine for acid-base, oxidative, photolytic, and thermal stress conditions. Hence, the developed method is accurate, precise, repeatable, and reproducible and can be used for routine analysis of lamotrigine.</p> Vilas B. Ghawate, Shubham D. Sikchi, Chetan C. Kedari, Varsha S. Jadhav, V. K. Deshmukh, Prerana Mote Copyright (c) 2021 Vilas B. Ghawate, Shubham D. Sikchi, Chetan C. Kedari, Varsha S. Jadhav, V. K. Deshmukh, Prerana Mote https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1734 Thu, 11 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Coronavirus Disease 2019 Symptoms on First Wave and Second Wave: An Overview https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1652 <p>During this decade, a fast spreading threat coronavirus has to infect human populations. This virus was first identified in Wuhan, China, in humans exposed to a seafood market. The virus is officially called 2019-novel coronavirus. The studies conducted during its initial outbreak show that human-to-human transmission was limited or non-existent, but it was not a correct assumption. Recently, the virus is reported in almost all the countries and territories. It is the third epidemic caused by coronavirus in the 21st century, already surpassing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in the number of individuals infected. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that as of 6:19 pm CEST, June 11, 2021, there have been more than 174 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including more than 3 million deaths, reported to the WHO. Many research works have been published and actively conducting on the threatening spread of the virus. The main symptoms of COVID‐19 included fever, fatigue, and cough, which are similar to that of SARS‐CoV- and MERS‐CoV-infected cases. Much literature reported various symptoms of COVID‐19, but the comprehensive review is few. The purpose of the paper is primarily to review the symptoms of different waves of COVID-19 infection. Awareness of the COVID-19 symptoms may help in early diagnosis, to control virus spread, and risk stratification.</p> O. Jamsheela Copyright (c) 2021 O. Jamsheela https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1652 Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Virtual Teaching Tools on Knowledge and Practice of Biomedical Waste Management among Housekeeping Staff of a Tertiary Care Centre, Rishikesh https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1658 <p>Background: The present bio-medical waste (BMW) practices, setup, and framework explored that almost 82% of primary, 60% of secondary, and 54% of tertiary health-care facilities had no trustworthy BMW management system. This study aimed to improve the knowledge and practice of BMW management among housekeeping staff of a tertiary care center, Rishikesh. Materials and Methods: One group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental study was conducted on 139 housekeeping staff. A self-structured knowledge questionnaire and practice checklist through the interview method was used for data collection. Virtual teaching tools (video about BMW management and e-pamphlet) were developed for the study and used. Results: After the intervention, in post-test it was found that the majority of participants had excellent knowledge (111; 79.8%), some (24; 17.3%) had good, and only few (4; 2.9%) had moderate knowledge. None of the participants were found to have poor knowledge after the intervention. There is significant difference in pre-existing (15.89 ± 2.49) and post-test (21.20 ± 4.61) knowledge score, pre-existing practice (21.67 ± 2.13), and post-test (24.95 ± 2.42) practice. There was association between educations their work area with knowledge and significant relationship between work area and past training programs with practice. There is a significant correlation between pre-test knowledge and practice (p=0.00) and post-test knowledge and practice (P = 0.01). Conclusion: It is evident that a virtual teaching tool that comprises video and e-pamphlet is useful in improving the knowledge and practice of housekeeping staff on BMW management.</p> Dev Narayan, Meena Saini, Manpreet Kaur, Nidhi Paliyan, Manorma Horo, Neha Rawat, Monika Saini, S. Manisha, Nevia Vaid, Neha Rawat, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy Copyright (c) 2021 Dev Narayan, Meena Saini, Manpreet Kaur, Nidhi Paliyan, Manorma Horo, Neha Rawat, Monika Saini, S. Manisha, Nevia Vaid, Neha Rawat, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1658 Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive Training: Strategy for Improving Mental Health of Elderly Inmates Living in Old Age Homes across Delhi, India https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1653 <p>Interindividual variability in cognitive function is attributed to biological, psychological, health-related, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The present study is to examine the beneficial effects of lifestyle and environmental factors on the cognitive ability after social and cognitive intervention residing in old age homes across Delhi, India. The elderly aged 60 years and above were randomly selected and a 21-day workshop of 90 min was conducted at each facility. Of the 89 inmates, 64 of them participated regularly in the workshop. Mini-Mental State Examination test and Mini-Cog test were conducted before and after the workshop. A Poisson regression model was fitted to assess the key determinants on the improvement of cognitive function. According to the fitted model, higher level of improvement was observed among the female (95% confidential interval [CI] 0.26–1.19; SE = 0.24) participants. Participants which had the lower level of cognitive impairment showed highly significant improvement in cognitive performance (95% CI 0.14–0.44; SE = 0.08) whereas physically active participants showed a negative association with improvement in cognitive performance (95% CI 1.58–0.26; SE = 0.34). Cognitive training helped in improving the mental health of elderly population. The notable distinction between the institutions is that in the institution in which the residents interacted the most with each other showed higher levels of improvement. The most significant factor found to be associated with cognitive improvement of the participants was their present level of cognitive impairment; it was observed that those with the least cognitive impairment benefitted the most from the intervention program. Hence, an early detection and intervention could be beneficial.</p> Deboshree Das, Sanya Malik, Rita Jain Copyright (c) 2021 Deboshree Das, Sanya Malik, Rita Jain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1653 Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comprehensive Appraisal on Shodhana Methods of Precious Gemstone: Vajra (Diamond) https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1650 <p>Introduction: The Vajra (diamond) is mentioned under Ratna classification in Ayurveda classics. In Ayurvedic practice; Vajra Bhasma used for treating challenging diseases, that is, tumor (Arbuda), etc. In the market also, it is available easily. However, data for Vajra Shodhana (purifying process) or Marana (process of making Bhasma) have not been compiled till date. Hence, here, an attempt has been carried out to compile the data for Vajra Shodhana from different classical texts. Objective: The objective of the study was to formulate inclusive data of Vajra Shodhana recorded in various Ayurvedic texts. Data source: This review reveals the Shodhana methods and Shodhana media which comprise 49 various books, that is, Samhita, Chikitsa Grantha, Rasa Grantha, and e-Nighantus also referred for review. Review Methods: Information collected on knowledge of Vajra Shodhana from classical texts through the index of the same by searching word “Hiraka Shodhana,” “Vajra Shodhana,” and “Ratna Shodhana.” Briefly, chapters were referred for a gathering of data. Conclusion: It is observed that about 34 methods for Vajra Shodhana are used in classics. Among this mainly, all methods are divided into five basic principles behind that classification. Swedana (giving heat by suspension of the drug in liquid)-Nisechana (immersion of heated solid in liquid) are the single processes used for Shodhana. Rest three methods are a continuous process.</p> Dipali Parekh, Sarika Makawana, Biswajyoti Patgiri Copyright (c) 2021 Dipali Parekh, Sarika Makawana, Biswajyoti Patgiri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1650 Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Resisted Sprint versus Plyometric Training on Leg Strength of Male Sprinters https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1599 <p>The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of resisted sprint (RS) versus plyometric training (PT) on the leg strength of male sprinters. To achieve the purpose of the study the researcher selected thirty intercollegiate level male sprinters as subjects. They were divided into three equal groups of ten sprinters. Group-I performed RS training (n = 10), Group-II performed PT (n = 10), and Group-III acted as control (n = 10). The age of the selected subjects was ranged from 18 to 22 years. The statistical procedure was “t-test” and percentage changes were used Further, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the significant difference existing between pretest and posttest on stride frequency. When the obtained “F ratio” value in the ANCOVA test was significant the Scheffe’s test was applied as a post hoc test to determine the paired mean differences if any. The results showed that twelve weeks of RS and PT considerably improved the leg strength of the male sprinters, whereas PT was significantly better than RS training. The result produced a 3.71% percentage of changes in leg strength due to RS training and 7.44% of changes due to PT.</p> L. Ajithkumar, M. Augustine Gnanaraj Copyright (c) 2021 L. Ajithkumar, M. Augustine Gnanaraj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1599 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Quick, Deployable, Online Health Survey in Public Health Research: Emerging Horizons of mHealth during Disasters https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1596 <p>Background: A nationwide lockdown in response to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disrupted various health surveys. Limited movements due to restricted public-transports, and the need to maintain social-distancing, make data collection at the field site through conventional methods such as face-to-face interviews challenging. Objectives: The objective of the study was to overcome such issues, we document a complete online survey, using mobile technologies, for public health research, and deployable during disasters. Methods: The survey form was uploaded online, and for the 1st time in India, the participant information page, consent, and assent forms were also deployed online. Informed consent forms from participants were captured electronically as hand-drawn signatures. A structured, electronic-questionnaire was shared to the participants’ smartphones, and the collected data were stored in a server using Research Electronic Data Capture, real-time. Results: Within a short span of 10 days, 1985 participants from 31 states and union territories took part in the survey. Among those, 79% had completed the survey, and the rest quit the survey mostly during the “consenting” phase, especially when they were asked to sign the consent/assent forms (16%). About 62.5% of the participant graded the online survey as “much better” followed by 19.5% suggesting “somewhat better,” indicating a positive public perception regarding the online survey. Conclusion: The real-time online survey in health research was perceived to be better than the conventional method. In the digital era, employing mHealth technologies in health research will be a cost-effective methodological approach to obtain the expected research outcome, in a resource and time-limited setting.</p> Ravi Muthusamy, V. M. Padmapriya, Nagaraj Jaganathasamy, Malathi Mathiyazhakan, Kannan Radhakrishnan, Chokkalingam Durairajan, Sabarinathan Ramasamy, Santhakumar Aridoss, Viji Vinod, Alex Eapen, Elangovan Arumugam Copyright (c) 2021 Ravi Muthusamy, V. M. Padmapriya, Nagaraj Jaganathasamy, Malathi Mathiyazhakan, Kannan Radhakrishnan, Chokkalingam Durairajan, Sabarinathan Ramasamy, Santhakumar Aridoss, Viji Vinod, Alex Eapen, Elangovan Arumugam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1596 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Marketing of Health Care Product and its Impact on Coronavirus Disease-19 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1677 <p>“It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver.” -Mohandas K. Gandhi<br>In this article, corona virus affected on global level has thrown many challenges to faced by many sectors and business. It has surprised the economies of developed, underdeveloped and developing countries. In such challenging times some businesses have edge over other businesses like telecom, internet service providers, pharmacy companies, unorganized retail, health sector and etc. This paper is conceptual nature and shows digital marketing and highlights. Digital Marketing is spreading awareness about the pandemic through their promotional campaign and marketers are heavily promoting online channels, online media for consumption and deferred payment systems using creative digital marketing strategies. This research paper show some highlights on current digital marketing trends and the effect of coronavirus disease-19 on company’s marketing strategies and activities, also reveal some common marketing strategies adopted by renowned companies like digital marketing, social media marketing, email marketing, 4Ps of marketing, advertisements. Digital marketing has breathed a new life in the healthcare industry by strengthening the visibility of your hospitality services in the online space. Through digital marketing, you can reach out to patients and healthcare aspirants worldwide, build trust among the audience, and expand the growth of your healthcare services.</p> R. Leeanju, K. Senthilkumar Copyright (c) 2021 R. Leeanju, K. Senthilkumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1677 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Action Research on Advocating Use of Fortified Foods in the Free-Living Population of Urban Vadodara using Diffusion of Innovation Model https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1597 <p>Worldwide, unaffordable healthy diets, dependability over staple food items, and lack of knowledge have been the major cause of malnutrition. Government programs, promoting dietary diversity and supplementation have not given promising results in improving the micronutrient status of the population. Government of India, along with Food Safety and Standards Authority of India have chosen five vehicles, namely, rice, wheat flour, salt, milk, and oil for the fortification process to combat the micronutrient deficiency. Fewer studies aimed at creating advocacy about fortified foods among the free living population and stake holders. The present study undertook the advocacy for fortified foods amongst the free living population using the Diffusion of Innovation Model (DIM) for the purchase of fortified foods. An E- Intervention using graphics, audios and videos were given to the participants on WhatsApp for 1 month. The results in the study have shown significant difference in the awareness, perception and purchase of fortified foods for all the five staples post intervention, which provides enough evidence that the proposed strategy for creating awareness and promoting purchase of fortified foods amongst the selected participants was highly effective. Use of different E-communication channels can be used by researchers at large for creating the awareness about the safe consumption of fortified foods. Besides this, conducive environment is needed for fortification program to be a success, which will ensure the proper supply and demand to make the food fortification program viable.</p> Ria Ahuja, Mini Sheth Copyright (c) 2021 Ria Ahuja, Mini Sheth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1597 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ayurveda: A Boon in Pandemics https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1744 <p>Population around the world is dealing with an unrivalled pandemic of viral disease severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome. The novel coronavirus has affected people worldwide with more than 1.43 million confirmed cases and 82,100 deaths as per data recorded on April 8, 2020. The pandemic has elevated the distress in common people including the psychological conditions with symptoms such as depression and anxiety. The psychological distress is linked with variation in the functioning of immunological responses including high level risk for viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. The extent of pandemic requires exploration of traditional as well as modern knowledge systems obtainable worldwide. Use of traditional Chinese Medicinal system in Wuhan for the treatment of patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has set an example illustrating the efficiency of traditional ways of healthcare as an addition in treatment of patients of COVID-19. In India, Ayurveda is medicine system with historical roots encouraged by Government of India as “immune booster regime.” Implementation of Ayurvedic knowledge and administration of Ayurvedic dosages with the present scientific studies on related clinical settings is an efficient plan for intervention in India for the treatment of patients suffering from COVID-19. In accordance to severity of symptoms and stage of infection among the patients, Ayurvedic dose regime can be administered in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Implementation of Ayurvedic medicinal system will ease learning and develop evidence as we cannot combat the reality that there is no evidence-based treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, Ayurvedic system of medicine should be implemented immediately to abate the impact of pandemic in terms of diminishing both psychological distress and risk of infection. Development of such elucidatory models will shed the light on the effectiveness of traditional medicines and medical practices during disease surges and could aid the symbiosis between traditional and modern medicinal system.</p> Kavita Sapra, Ashu Sapra, Rupali Sharma, Saloni Kakkar, Ridhi Bajaj, Ashwani Jangra Copyright (c) 2021 Kavita Sapra, Ashu Sapra, Rupali Sharma, Saloni Kakkar, Ridhi Bajaj, Ashwani Jangra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1744 Wed, 17 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Assessment of Biological Activity of Quinazolinone-4(3H)-one Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1624 <p>One of the foremost causes of death around world is cancer. Hence, there is a continuous research going on to find newer anticancer agents with least side effect. Quinazolinone is a privileged framework with prominent anticancer activities. A sequence of eight derivatives (5a-5h) of quinazolinone-4(3H)-one was prepared and tested for activity as anticancer agents against MCF-7 cell lines in this study. One of the compounds 5e showed good activity with 63.71% inhibition of cell growth as compared to 86.96% inhibition by standard doxorubicin.</p> Baljeet Singh, Shailesh Sharma, Manish Sinha, S. Sagar Copyright (c) 2021 Baljeet Singh, Shailesh Sharma, Manish Sinha, S. Sagar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1624 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antihelminthic Activity of Bixa orellana https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1723 <p>Intestinal worms are common problems in remote and rural areas of India. The communities of remote areas use some wild plants to treat intestinal worms. Among them, Bixa orellana is a monogenic plant of family Bixaceae, popularly known as lipstick tree or Annatto and locally called as Sinduri. It is traditionally used to kill the intestinal worms, results revealed that seeds of B. orellana possess diverse secondary metabolites such as tannin and phenolic compounds which might be responsible to kill the worms. Antihelminthic activity showed that seed extracts (aqueous, acetone, methanol, and ethanol) were effective against Eisenia fetida. Keeping the traditional uses of Sinduri against stomach worm and to reduce the side effects of synthetic drugs, the present experiment has been designed.</p> Swastiprava Das, Sugimani Marndi, Susanta Kumar Biswal, Tikendrajit Baro, Ramesh Singh, Rajkumari Supriya Devi, Rikina Choudhury, Sanjeet Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Swastiprava Das, Sugimani Marndi, Susanta Kumar Biswal, Tikendrajit Baro, Ramesh Singh, Rajkumari Supriya Devi, Rikina Choudhury, Sanjeet Kumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1723 Sun, 07 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Choice of Place of Delivery during COVID-19 Pandemic: Observation from a Community-Based Survey in Rural India https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1651 <p>For the past two decades, India has made considerable improvement in health indicators and the country was on the right track toward achieving sustainable development goal-3 by 2030. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the health-care system including the essential health services for mother and child. This study was carried out to understand the barriers for utilization of institutional delivery and its prevalence during the pandemic in rural West Bengal. A total of 318 number of women from 18 sampled villages of Canning II block of South 24 Parganas district were interviewed face to face using a semi-structured interview schedule between October and November 2020. The data were analyzed using Stata and NVivo 12 Pro software. Findings show that more than one-fourth (27.3%) of the deliveries took place at home without any assistance of medical professionals. Fear and anxiety related to COVID-19, uncertain service availability, poor service quality during the pandemic, and lack of supporting hands at households compelled women to choose home delivery instead of institutional delivery. Those delivered at institutions, many of them were released on the day of delivery itself, which resulted poor perinatal care even in the cases of institutional delivery. The findings recommend that in addition to COVID-19 related health services, essential maternal and child health services should be continued with the quality to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.</p> Atanu Ghosh, Runa Nath, Nazmul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Atanu Ghosh, Runa Nath, Nazmul Islam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1651 Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Diet Consultation through Online and Offline Platforms to COVID Inpatients and Non-COVID Outpatients https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1684 <p>Current pandemic has brought technological advancements in nutrition intervention methods and diet consultations, which was taken into consideration for analyzing the efficacy of different approaches. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of diet consultation through online and offline platforms to COVID inpatients and non-COVID outpatients and to understand the impact of consultation methods on the dietary intake of patients. Retrospective data from a tertiary care multispecialty hospital in Central Kerala were collected after obtaining ethical clearance. Online diet recall of COVID inpatients (n=302, follow-up n=277) and non-COVID outpatients (n=14, follow-up n=5) through telephonic, e-mail, and WhatsApp and offline or direct consultation for outpatients (n=298, follow-up n=28) were conducted and data collected. ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction or sphericity assumption, post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction, standard deviation, significance test using p-value, and percentage analyses were the statistical parameters used for the study. The results revealed that proper diet consultation and follow-up may bring about changes in nutritional status of all categories of patients. Online method was more consistent in follow-up when compared to offline method. During COVID period, patients opting for online diet consultation increased. Both COVID inpatients and non-COVID outpatients who were consistent with online follow-up were showing significant nutritional changes and those who had offline consultation lacked regular follow-up. Digital health intervention measures have more scope than conventional methods in the current pandemic.</p> Manju P. George, C. A. Kalpana Copyright (c) 2021 Manju P. George, C. A. Kalpana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1684 Sat, 23 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy on Management of Mild Depression https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1669 <p>Depressive disorder constitutes a serious problem in the world, though the treatment of it leaves plenty of room for improved approaches. This article endeavors to dispel the myth and misconceptions concerning the use of Hypnosis in the treatment of depression, which can be used in the context of a wide range of therapeutic approach. Research was conducted on 15 depressive patients with mild depression, who were examined, interviewed and administered the therapy of hypnosis. The pre-treatment and post-treatment scores were noted and analyzed. The rate of depression lowered with no side effects. What works for depression of course marks the change in perception and affirmation with hypnotherapy.</p> Nupur Swarup Copyright (c) 2021 Nupur Swarup https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1669 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 “Taboos and Myth” – Indispensable Part of Menstruation: An Overview https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1707 <p>Menstruation is a physiological condition for women in their life span. Menstruation is a common fact as blood from the uterus passes into the vaginal canal. It is a normal phase that begins in girls between the ages of 11 and 14 and is one of the first signs of puberty. It has, however, still been surrounded by taboos and myths that keep women out of certain facets associated with this issue. Many societal taboos regarding menstruation affect women’s emotional well-being, mindset, lifestyle, and, most importantly, health. As a result, a strategic approach to combating these issues is very much required. This paper aims to discuss common menstruation myths and taboos in various parts of the world. This issue also creates a significant impact on women’s sociocultural lives. Even though it is a disorder that only affects females, it has always been shrouded in mystery and myth. Menstruation taboos keep women out of certain facets of social and cultural life. This restriction spreads potential negativity from the grassroot level.</p> Lopamudra Ganguly, Lakshminarayan Satpati, Sreeparna Nath Copyright (c) 2021 Lopamudra Ganguly, Lakshminarayan Satpati, Sreeparna Nath https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1707 Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Methotrexate and Naproxen in Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Wistar Rat https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1728 <p>The liver is one of the heaviest organs in the body (1.2–1.5 kg) and serve the most important function of maintaining the body’s internal environment. The anatomical location of the liver is key to fulfill this role, as almost all absorption of unknown material into the body takes place in the gut and the portal blood draining the gut flows to the liver, which later controls the release of absorbed nutrients into the systemic circulation. In adding together to its function in metabolizing nutrients, the liver is capable to store and liberate a variety of substrates, vitamins and plays an essential role in drug and bilirubin metabolism. Liver cancer is most of the deadliest disease in the whole world which has been increasing day by day. The present study was aimed to investigate the activity of Methotrexate (MTX) and Naproxen (Np) to reduce the risk of liver cancer induced by Diethylnitrosamine (DENA) on rats. After examination, it was observed that pharmacological assessment of MTX and Np shows positive reactions toward treating DENA-induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in animals.</p> Pooja Uniyal, Sandhya Dobhal Copyright (c) 2021 Pooja Uniyal, Sandhya Dobhal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1728 Tue, 09 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Super Food Nutri Rich Bar https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1731 <p>The term “super food” has become a buzzword in the language of food and health. Going for healthy snack is always a wiser choice in comparison to choosing unhealthy and junk food potions. A super food bar was developed by blending the chia seeds, flax seeds, and watermelon seeds with dates and other ingredients in three different variations. The nutrient composition, sensory qualities, and storage characteristics of the product were analyzed. The developed bar was evaluated for sensory attributes, and the keeping quality was evaluated by standardized methods. Organoleptic evaluation showed significant difference between the variations and variation-3 obtained highest score. The nutrient composition of the finalized product as follows: protein 11.7 g, fat 20.8 g, calcium 230.6 mg, iron 5.6 mg, ω-3 fatty acids 6.46 mg, and dietary fiber 11.84 g/100 g of bar. Shelf life of the product was about 45 days under normal conditions when stored in refrigeration condition. The work indicates the potential of using of chia seeds, flax seeds, and watermelon seeds develop nutri rich bar for all age groups.</p> M. Niharika, G. Sireesha, D. Madhavi, S. V. Sumalatha Copyright (c) 2021 M. Niharika, G. Sireesha, D. Madhavi, S. V. Sumalatha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1731 Wed, 10 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulation for Diabetes https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1761 <p>Objective: Treatment of diabetes without any adverse effects is a big challenge to the medical fraternity. There is need for alternative drugs with no side effects. The present study is aimed to develop a polyherbal formulation for effective management of diabetes using some of the indigenous plants taking lead from ethnobotanical information. Ajuga parviflora, Saraca asoca, Potentilla fulgens and Aconitum heterophyllum were selected for the development of antidiabetic formulation. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening of selected plants were performed. In-vitro antidiabetic activity of plants and standard drug acarbose was evaluated by α-amylase inhibition assay. The polyherbal suspension prepared and its antidiabetic activity was evaluated in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics and tannins in the plants. The prepared formulation was brown, easily pourable from the container and have redispersibility property with optimum particle size distribution. Sedimentation studies showed that the sedimentation volume of a formulation is in-between a range of 1. Administration of polyherbal formulation at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose for 21 days to diabetic rats decreased fasting blood sugar 159 ± 2.81 mg/dL and 147.74 ± 2.03 mg/dL respectively as compared to the diabetic control group 361 ± 3.89 mg/dL. Conclusion: The present findings indicated that developed polyherbal formulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg showed significant antihyperglycemic activity (***p&lt;0.001) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model.</p> Anupam Bisht, Harinath Dwivedi, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat Copyright (c) 2021 Anupam Bisht, Harinath Dwivedi, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://apjhs.com/index.php/apjhs/article/view/1761 Thu, 25 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000