In vitro Phytochemical Screening and Anti-snake Venom Activity of the Methanol Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Leptadenia hastata (Asclepiadaceae) against Naja nigricollis
Keywords:Leptadenia hastata, Phytochemical, Snake venom
Snake envenomation is a major cause of death and morbidity in many developing countries. Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) Decne (Asclepiadaceae) has been reportedly used in traditional medicine as an antivenom, antiulcer, antidiabetic, analgesic, cardiovascular disorders, bacterial and viral infections. This research design is to investigate the phytochemical analysis and phospholipase A2 enzyme inhibition potential of L. hastata leaf and stem bark extracts using standard procedures. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of key constituents such as carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids, saponins, and diterpenes. The methanol leaf and stem extracts were able to inhibit the hydrolytic action of phospholipase A2 enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner. The research findings lay credence to the folkloric claim of the leaf and stem of L. hastata as an anti-snake venom.
Cos P, Vlientinek AJ, Vanden-Berghe D, Maes L. Anti-infective potentials of natural product: How to develop a stronger in vitro proof of concept. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;106:290-303.
Clark AM. Natural products as a resource for new drugs. Pharm Res 1996;13:1133-41.
Soejarto DD, Farnsworth NR. Tropical rain forest: Potential source of new drugs prospect. Bio Med 1989;32:244-56.
Thomas SD. Leptadenia hastata: A review of its traditional uses and its pharmacological activity. Med Chem 2012;2:148-50.
Togola A, Austarheim I, Thesis A, Diallo D, Paulsen BS. Ethnopharmacological uses of Erythrina senegalensis: A comparison of three areas in Mali and a link between traditional knowledge and modern biological science. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2008;4:174-9.
Betti JL, Rost S, Yemef AA, Tarla FN. Contribution to the knowledge of non-wood forest products of the far north region of Cameroon: Medicinal plants sold in the Koussri market. J Ecol Natl Environ 2011;3:241-54.
Dambatta SH, Aliyu BS. A survey of major ethno medicinal plants of Kano North Western Nigeria, their knowledge and uses by traditional healers. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci 2011;4:28-34.
Gold BS, Richard CD, Robert AB. Bites of venomous snakes. N Engl J Med 2002;347:347-56.
Argiolas A, Pisano JJ. Facilitation of phospholipase A2 activity by mastoparans, a new class of mast cell degranulating peptides from wasp venom. J Biol Chem 1983;258:13697-702.
Sumana S, Rituparna G. Preliminary screening of aqueous Alstonia scholaris Linn bark extract for antivenom activity in experimental animal model. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2017;16:120-3.
Meenatchisundaram S, Prajish G, Parameswari T, Subbraj AM. Studies on antivenom activity of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Echis carinatus venom. Intern J Toxicol 2008;6:1-7.
Maya DC, Vasantha B, Mary VL, Arthur U, Krishnan PR, Lissy K. An improved method for isolation of antiviper venom antibodies from chicken egg yolk. J Biochem Biophys Methods 2002;51:129-38.
Cannon R, Ruha AM, Kashani J. Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of crotalidue polyvalent immune Fab antivenom. Ann Emerg Med 2008;51:407-11.
Chippaux JP. Snake-bites: Appraisal of the global situation. Bull World Health Organ 1998;76:515-24.
Silva LG, Lee IS, Kingdom DA. Special problem with the extraction of plants. In: Cann RJ, editor. Natural Products Isolation. New Jessey, USA: Humana Press Inc.; 1998. p. 343-64.
Stalh E. Drug analysis by chromatography and microscopy. In: A Practical Supplement to Pharmacopoeias. 1st ed. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers; 1973. p. 219-24.
Trease EA, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 11th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone Harcourt Health Service; 1978. p. 60-75.
Sofowora A. Screening plants for bioactive agents. In: Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.; 1982. p. 289.
Tan NH, Tan CS. Acidimetric assay of phospholipase A2 using egg yolk as substrate. Ann Biochem 1988;170:282-8.
Enenebeaku CK, Umerie SC, Nwankwo MU, Enenebeaku UE. Anti-snake venom activities of the leaf extracts of Asystasia gangetica (L) and Newbouldia leavis (p. Beauv). World News Natl Sci 2018;16:33-41.
Hasson SS, Al-Jabri AA, Sallam TA, Al-Balushi MS, Mothana RA. Antisnake venom activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja N. nigricollis. J Toxicol 2010;2010:837864.
Ode OJ, Asuzu IU. The anti-snake venom activities of the methanolic extract of the bulb of Crinum jagus (Amaryllidaceae). Toxicon 2006;48:331-42.
Boche J, Chippaux JP, Courtois B. Contribution `al’etude des variations biochimiques desvenins de serpents d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1981;74:356-66.
Broadle YD. A review of the African cobras of the genus Naja (Serpentes: Elapinae). Arnoldia 1968;3:1-14.
How to Cite
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license to published articles. Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but they allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited. Appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.