Pharmacological Study of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh) for their possible Antimalarial Activity with Emphasis on Resistance and Resistant Reversal
Keywords:Malaria, Parasitemia, Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, Chloroquine resistant, Resistance reversal, Andrographis paniculata
Antimalarial effect of some medicinal plants found in Uttarakhand (India) is least explored by the scientific community locally. Advent of resistance to various antimalarial drugs by plasmodium made malaria more fatal and life-threatening disease. Therefore, present need is to invest more effort and interest in research for antimalarials from medicinal plants. Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (PYn) is multi drug resistance malaria parasite known for resistance to chloroquine (CQ), quinine, quinidine, amodiaquine, halofantrine, mepacrine, and mefloquine. The P. yoelii produces 100% infections in animals. Researchers in this study tried to understand the behavior of CQ -resistant plasmodium PYn with CQ, whole plant extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP) with possibility of their resistance reversal. Wherever, 3–4 times CQ doses are not able to produce sufficient antimalarial effect in resistant PYn. Most of the pure plant extracts are also not able to produce minimal therapeutic response when given alone. Whereas, plant extract shows a better effect when given with minimal dose CQ than alone. AP whole plant hydroalcoholic (HA) extract doses 300 mg/kg when combining CQ 20 mg/kg shows the best effect among the other extracts alone. Parasitemia and red blood cells count parameters significantly improved. Hemoglobin, survival days and weight are benefitted with HA extract then ethanolic extract. Unexpectedly, HA extract at higher dosage 1000 mg/kg produce efficacy then 300 mg/kg dose group. Higher doses of HA extract causes some sort of negative effect on almost all selected parameters even though with ethanolic extract. Present approach of multi-drug dosage supports also supported here in the study with a thought of using antimalarial plant extracts during regular malaria treatment. Genesis of idea of referring standardized plant extract(s) in combination as oral dosage with prophylactic (travelers) malaria and malaria treatment or side-food for malaria will also possible. Positive results may pave a path for inclusion of herbal extracts or herbs as side treatment or resistance-breaker food for malaria.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Jai Kumar Mishra, Kumud Upadhyay, Sharad Visht, Ramandeep Singh, Anita Kumari, Hareesh Dara, Amit Kumar Verma, Sunita Singh
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