Preventive Strategies for Malaria in Under-Five Children of Poor Resource Communities of Ndola, Zambia
Keywords:Malaria, Children, Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Indoor Residual spraying (IRS),, Chipulukusu, Ndola
Background :Malaria in under-five children is a major public health problem throughout the tropical and subtropical region of the world. Fifty percent or more people who die in Zambia are children under-five years. Though Zambia has made strides in malaria prevention and control in the last five years, malaria kills more children under the age of five than any other illness. The aim of the study was to determine preventive strategies in association with malaria in under-five children of poor resourced communities of Ndola evaluating the effectiveness of the Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs), the use of indoor spraying and evaluating the behaviours in terms of malaria prevention. Methodology: This was a descriptive survey method was conducted in which a questionnaire was administered to mothers of under-five children. The study was conducted at Chipulukusu Clinic Ndola Zambia. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Quantitative data was entered into the computer for analysis using Microsoft excel and SPSS vs20. Result the study enrolled a total of 361 under-five children out of which 138 (38.23%) of the children RDT (detecting Plasmodium falciparum) results where positive and that 223 (61.77%) of them were negative. The study established that 225 (62.33%) of the children were using mosquito nets as compared to 136 (38.23) % that were not using them. The majority of the mothers with a percentage representation of (271) 75% were using mosquito nets and only 90 (25%) were not. Spraying was done and 21% of the respondents had their houses sprayed in less than 3months, 17% between 6-8months, 9% between 12-15 months together with 3-5 months, 4% between 9-11 months and the least being 2% more than 16 months ago. Association between RDT positive results and the use of mosquitoes nets was significant with a p value of 0.025. Conclusion : It was established that the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and exposure to indoor residual spraying (IRS) are not adequate enough to zero mosquito bites to the children. It was also noted that mother’s behaviors to prevent the risk of mosquito bites was poor.
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