Environmental Impacts of COVID-19 Pharmaceuticals and Disinfectants.


  • Bhawna Srivastava Department of Zoology, Dayanand Anglo Vaidik Mahavidyalaya College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • P. B. Reddy Department of Zoology, Government Art and Science College, Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India.




COVID-19, Disinfectants, Ecological risks, Pharmaceuticals, Surface water


With the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic (SARS-COV-2), the use of several aging and irrelevant pharmaceuticals has increased strangely. Consequently, huge amounts of disinfectants and antibiotics were used prevent the spreading of COVID-19 and residual drugs are also constantly excreted in freshwater, raising concerns about potential ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of these disinfectants and pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and their potential ecotoxicological effects and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-promoting effects. The literature information was sourced from PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using Google Scholars, Academia, and Research gate as search engines. Results revealed that the long-term exposure to pharmaceuticals and disinfectants and its by-products may pose detrimental effects on public health, reproductive impairments, obstructive pulmonary diseases, cancers, skin damage, and damage of central nervous system. Some researchers found significant fluctuations in the community structure of planktonic species in exposed waters. Results also revealed that excess use or misuse antibiotic misuse can accelerated the development of AMR. The present assessment fills the knowledge gap on the prevalence and effects of COVID-19-related pharmaceuticals in on the aquatic environment and wildlife. The outcome our study recommends an urgent need for an ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring the flow of COVID-19-related pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. We also advocate for an effective waste water management and to improve the removal efficiencies of drug residues in wastewater.


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How to Cite

Bhawna Srivastava, & P. B. Reddy. (2022). Environmental Impacts of COVID-19 Pharmaceuticals and Disinfectants. Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, 9(4), 263–268. https://doi.org/10.21276/apjhs.2022.9.4S.50