Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis
Keywords:Direct Agglutination Test, Sero-prevalence, Socio-Economic factor, Visceral Leishmaniasis
Background and Objectives: The epidemiological studies, clinical presentation and pathogenesis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are reviewed along with the current control strategies and research challenges to launch a regional VL elimination programme. VL causes considerable morbidity and mortality both in terms of geographical spread and incidence. Combinations of different risk factors are responsible for leishmaniasis. However, a disease control strategy is still unpractical because the reservoir host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector have not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, this sero-epidemiological study was designed to analyze socio- economic status, Socio-behavioural and environmental factors associated with the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: The descriptive cross sectional study based on non-experimental design among 300 study subjects were carried out at Bindhi Village of Dhanusha district in the central development region of Nepal. Data were collected using close type of questionnaire; direct personal interview, observation and Statistical analysis were performed using the DBASE IV and EPI-INFO version 6 STATA. The direct agglutination test was performed for screening the population. Results: The prevalence and sero- prevalence of the disease was found to be 1% at the initial screening and 13.4 % respectively. The ratio of clinical disease to sero-positive was 1:13.3 in the initial examination. Based on the past history, the majority of the cases were among the age group 5-35, years in male, farmers, students, housewives, labour and others. More of the cases were among the illiterate, having primary education and less in higher educated person. Conclusion: Poverty, thatched roofed houses and not using mosquito nets were found to be risk factors. The sensitivity and specificity of the DAT was satisfactory for field application. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for both individual patients and for the community.
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