Risk factors associated with acute respiratory infections among under-five children admitted to Arthur’s Children Hospital, Ndola, Zambia
Keywords:Acute respiratory infections, children under 5 years old, risk factors, Zambia
Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are among the leading causes of acute illnesses worldwide and remain the most important cause of infant and young children mortality especially in developing countries. In Zambia, ARI are among the top ten leading causes of morbidity leading to hospital visitations and admissions of children under five years of age. The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors associated with acute respiratory infections. Methods: A case-control study of hospitalized under-five children at Arthur Davison children’s hospital in Ndola was conducted. Results: The study comprised 220 participants of which 107 were cases and 113 were controls. A total of 126 (57.3%) were male children (56.1% of cases and 58.4% of controls). Factors associated with ARI were: mothers with history of ARI (AOR=2.31; 95%CI [1.57, 3.42]); siblings with a history of ARI (AOR=1.69; 95%CI [1.12, 2.55]); household with a separate room for cooking (AOR=2.86; 95% CI [1.54,5.32]); families that usually did not use any transport media (AOR=0.57;95% CI [0.32, 1.02]); families that used public transport (AOR=2.51; 95% CI [1.56, 4.05]); and households comprising of less or equal to 3 people (AOR=0.31;95% CI [0.16,0.63]).Conclusion: In a study of under-five children at Arthur Davison Children Hospital, ARIs were negatively associated with low socio-economic status and family history of respiratory infections. The present findings reiterate the need to intensify the administration of health education on the prevention measures for ARI.
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