Malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract – an overview
Keywords:Gastrointestinal tract, malignant, Squamous cell carcinoma
Background: Gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is a dynamic organ owing to its anatomy and function. The upper GI and lower GI are considered separately when dealing with various lesions that occur therein. A wide variety of nonmalignant and malignant lesions with various clinical and prognostic outcomes can occur throughout the GI tract. In this study, we aim to analyze and delve into the details of the various malignancies that were encountered throughout the GI tract in our institution. Materials & Method: The present work is a cross-sectional and analytical type of study conducted in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care rural hospital over a period of one year (Jan 2014 to Dec 2014). All malignant cases which were confirmed on histopathology were studied. Detailed clinical and radiological history was obtained. All the data was then further analysed. Result: A total of 263 cases of lesions of the GI tract were received. Of these, 65 (24.71%) cases were malignant, whereas 198 (75.29%) cases were nonmalignant. Male: Female ratio was 1.9:1. Mean age across all the lesions was 49.1 years. Most commonly affected site was oral cavity with 35 (53.85%) cases followed by large intestine with 14 (21.54%) cases. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignancy encountered. Conclusion: GI tract can give rise to various malignancies affecting any part and span across a age group Squamous cell carcinoma was the most commonly encountered malignancy followed by adenocarcinoma. The incidence of malignancies is on a rise in India as observed in our study. Accurate diagnosis of these malignancies is very important as treatment for various malignancies varies.
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