Fluoride level in drinking water and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries among the school children: A descriptive cross-sectional study
Keywords:Children, dental caries, drinking water, fluorides, hypoplasia
Background: Fluoride is very critical for the normal development and caries resistance of enamel. However, fluoride level above
1 part per million (PPM) will result in enamel hypoplasia. Aim: The study aims to estimate the fluoride level in the drinking
water and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries among the schoolchildren in Al-Zulfi and Majmaah areas in Riyadh
province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were analyzed from the study area, and screening
camps were conducted for schoolchildren between 7 and 15 years of age, and 157 children were included in the study using simple
random sampling. Written consent from the parents was obtained. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis using
SPSS version 21. Results: The drinking water sample showed a fluoride level between 0.56 PPM and 0.09 PPM and 39 children
(24.8%) had fluorosis. 9 (23%) of them had fluorosis in primary dentition and 30 in permanent dentition (76.9%). A mean of total
number of caries in permanent teeth is 1.87 and 2.35 in primary teeth. Conclusion: The drinking water in the study area had
fluoride below the optimal level with an increased prevalence of dental caries. However, the presence of dental fluorosis could be
attributed to other sources of dietary fluorides. This research highlights the necessity for maintaining optimum level of fluoride
in drinking water and monitoring fluoride intake from other dietary sources.
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